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Thursday, 26 February 2009

From Today's Papers - 26 Feb 09

BSF on high alert over BDR mutiny
Bijay Sankar Bora
Tribune News Service

Guwahati, February 25
In the wake of reports of mutiny in the Bangladesh Rifles (BDR) headquarters in Dhaka, the Border Security Force (BSF) has put all its troops deployed along the India-Bangladesh border on high alert to face any situation that may develop along the border as a fallout of what has happened in Dhaka.

Assam and Meghalaya Frontier BSF Inspector-General Prithivi Raj told The Tribune, “ We are closely watching the development in respect of the BDR in Bangladesh. Our troops deployed along the border have been put on high alert. We have asked our field officers to be in constant communication with the troops guarding the border to guide them properly to deal with the situation.”

“We have asked our border sentinels to remain vigilant but keep their cool so that they don’t act in haste in the event of any situation that may develop along the border in relation to the reported mutiny in the BDR, an internal matter of the neighbouring country,” the BSF official added.

Hasina bends, BDR revolt ends
Ashfaq Wares Khan writes from Dhaka

A mutiny in the Bangladesh Rifles (BDR) was quelled on Wednesday as Premier Sheikh Hasina granted a "general amnesty" to renegade soldiers, hours after the rebels demanding pay hike stormed their headquarters here and opened fire on senior officers, leaving 15 people dead and about as many wounded.

“The Prime Minister granted them (BDR soldiers) a general amnesty," State Minister for Local Government Ministry, Jahangir Kabir Nanok, said. His remarks followed a meeting between Hasina and a 14-member delegation of the rebel BDR soldiers at the Premier's official Jamuna residence here.

In the morning, the Bangladesh's paramilitary force, which has 45,000 troops and is largely responsible for patrolling the country's border with India and Myanmar, engaged in a mutiny as angry soldiers took their senior officers, including BDR chief Maj Gen Shakil Ahmed, hostage after opening fire inside the BDR headquarters.

Masked mutineers told the media that the action was fallout of “continued oppression” under the Bangladesh army and years of low pay and benefits. The troops held several army officers hostage but pledged to surrender their arms after Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina granted their amnesty and promised to meet their demands in phases.

The gunfight broke out at around 9 am when junior BDR officers and riflemen revolted against senior officers, those deputed from the army, during an annual meeting when the troops share their concerns with their chief. General Shakil, deputed from the army, reportedly admonished several of the troops when they demanded better benefits, triggering a violent backlash. A government spokesman said the mutiny seemed pre-planned.

Tension had been brewing for long, with BDR troops distributing leaflets listing their grievances, including overwhelming dominance of army officers, low pay and lack of benefits and greater participation in the country's lucrative UN peacekeeping missions. “We’ve taken up arms today because we’ve been repressed by army officers for long,” read a hand-written message given to the media by the mutineers. “Our rights were snatched away and our back was pushed to the wall. Please stand beside us," said the message addressed to the people.

The BDR troops took charge of their headquarters and even shot at an army helicopter hovering over their barracks. Smoke could be seen billowing out of a number of buildings inside the large headquarters compound, located in the middle of Dhaka.

Soon, the army was called in and the headquarters cordoned off. In the ensuing gun-battle, a rickshaw-puller was killed and several civilians injured. The army released a statement calling on the BDR troops to surrender and return to their barracks. "Soldiers who fail to give up arms after this announcement will be prosecuted," the statement said.

Notably, this is the first ever mutiny in the BDR, in stark contrast to the indiscipline in the military who have experienced at least 20 coups. The BDR chief, Shakil Ahmed, who was reportedly attacked by his irate troops, had earlier promised to work closely with India countering terrorist groups active along the borders.

2 Generals in ordnance scam
Vijay Mohan
Tribune News Service

Chandigarh, February 25
The Army Ordnance Corps (AOC) is once again in the limelight over corrupt practices amongst senior officers, with two Major-Generals in the dock for their alleged acts of omission and commission in separate matters. This includes misappropriation in purchases for UN peacekeeping missions.

Army sources revealed that while a court of inquiry (COI) has held Maj-Gen Anand Swaroop, officiating Commandant of the School for Materials Management, Jabalpur, blameworthy on several counts, COI proceedings are currently underway against, Maj-Gen S P Sinha, head of the ordnance branch at Headquarters Western Command Chandimandir.

A COI presided over by Lt Gen P C Katoch, Director-General Information Systems at Army Headquarters, found General Swaroop blameworthy of financial misappropriation in the purchase items like clothing, accessories, generator sets and associated equipment for a unit deploying overseas on a United Nations mission in 2007. The COI found that prices of items so procured were heavily inflated vis-à-vis general market rates. The findings of the COI have been forwarded to the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Western Command, for directions.

In the second instance, a COI, presided over by the Director-General, EME, Lt Gen A K S Chandele is investigating the role of General Sinha in alleged irregularities into the purchase of general stores worth crores for the Ordnance Depot at Choeki near Allahabad.

The cases of both the officers, though separate, are related to the same post of Additional Director General (ADG), Army Ordnance Corps at Army Headquarters, held by them at different times. Both the inquiries, based on various complaints received by Army authorities, have been ordered on the directions of the GOC-in-C, Western Command, and had assembled in New Delhi.

Mutiny rocks Bangladesh, BDR soldiers revolt Mineguruji 25 February 2009, Wednesday

BANGLADESH'S BORDER security force, Bangladesh Rifles (BDR) mutinied in capital Dhaka on Wednesday (February 25) morning asking for better pay and facilities. The soldiers of BDR shouted slogans against the government and are reported to have taken Major General Shakil Ahmed as hostage.

The mutiny by BDR men triggered several gun battles in the capital city leading to a number of casualties. Several officers have also been killed at BDR headquarters located in Dhaka's Pilkhana area.

Local police said that firing was heard from the BDR complex in the morning and the gunfight is still going on. The government has called in the army to control the situation after the fighting broke out during an official meeting.

Streets in Dhaka witnessed panic with no one knowing what was going on in the rebel headquarter. While the rebels are firing indiscriminately, the army has pressed in helicopters to take stock of the situation and bring it under control.

Resentment has been brewing in the ranks of Bangladesh Rifles since last two years after the government did no listen to their repeated demands. Along with manning the borders, BDR has been asked to do a number of tasks but given no reward for the same, said an official on the condition of anonymity.

Bangladesh Prime Minister, meanwhile, has said that their grievances will be looked into and demands met.

Indian Borders on Alert after Mutiny in Bangladesh

India Wednesday put its frontier guards on maximum alert along the Bangladesh border following a border guard mutiny in the neighboring country, officials said.

An Indian Border Security Force (BSF) official said troopers were put on high alert and additional reinforcements rushed to sensitive border areas along the northeastern states of Tripura and Assam.

"A high alert was sounded with senior officials asked to station themselves in the border outposts," A.K. Singh, a BSF spokesperson said.

Another senior BSF official said Bangladesh army soldiers have taken over several border outposts in Feni district, bordering Tripura, after a mutiny by the Bangladesh Rifles (BDR) troopers.

"We are monitoring the developments and as of now nothing unusual has been noticed along the border. We are ready to meet any eventuality in the event of a spill over of the happenings in Bangladesh," the BSF official said requesting not to be named.

Tripura shares a 856 km-long border with Bangladesh, with at least 30 percent of the border unfenced. Assam shares 272 km-long border with Bangladesh.

"BDR troopers stationed in some of the border areas were found to be jittery and confused after getting reports of the clashes in Dhaka. Our boys are monitoring their activities," the official said.

Bullets Fly as Army, Paramilitary Clash in Dhaka

Smoke billowed and a helicopter circled in the air Wednesday as gun battles broke out between Bangladesh's border guards, the Bangladesh Rifles (BDR), and the army in Dhaka in what appeared to be a virtual uprising by the paramilitary troopers.

Four civilians were injured in the crossfire, residents in the Bangladesh capital said. All of them were hospitalized with bullet wounds.

Residents close to the BDR headquarters in Peelkhana on the outskirts of the capital said they heard sounds of gunshots and mortar shells Wednesday morning.

The army has been called to put down the trouble.

The trouble broke out at about 9 a.m. (8.30 a.m. in India) between BDR personnel and its officers who are from the army.

According to the Daily Star newspaper, scores of civilians were injured outside the BDR headquarters as "artillery and rifles were also reportedly fired".

Smoke billowed from the BDR compound and a helicopter circled over the building.

BDR, originally raised by the British in 1795, acquired its present role and name after the nation's independence in 1971.

Having an estimated strength of 67,000 men, it is headed by a director general who is drawn from the Bangladesh Army.

Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, who took power in January, had Tuesday visited the BDR headquarters to address the troopers.

She had warned that "any unfair step against Bangladesh will have to be resisted with bravery and boldness".

"We have some border-related problems with our neighboring countries. A policy has been adopted in the top level to solve these problems. We believe in good relations with the neighboring countries. But any unfair step on us will have to be resisted with bravery and boldness."

The prime minister also categorically stated that the none would be allowed to use the territory of Bangladesh for terrorist activities.

"I hope BDR officers will be more vigilant in resisting smuggling to save our economy. You know that smuggling is very much harmful for a country's economy," she said in her maiden address to the BDR.

Bulk of US Troops May Leave Iraq by August 2010


President Barak Obama plans to withdraw majority of the US troops from Iraq by August 2010, officials said.

According to the plan, of the 142,000 US troops in Iraq, 30,000-50,000 soldiers would remain in the country till December 2011, while the rest would move out by August 2010, media reports said quoting government officials.

A formal announcement in this regard was expected later this week.

Officials said Obama

is discussing the matter with Defence Secretary Robert Gates and would make a formal announcement later this week, probably by Wednesday.

The new timetable for the troops' pull out from Iraq would be three months later than Obama's original pledge to withdraw troops within 16 months after his inauguration.

At least 4,250 US troops have died since the US invaded Iraq in March 2003. About $650 billion have been spent so far in the conflict.

Forces facing officers' crunch: house committee

PTI | February 25, 2009 | 14:38 IST

A "perturbed" parliamentary committee has asked the defence ministry to immediately work out a plan to correct the "unprecedented" shortage of officers in the armed forces which has reached 23.8, 16.7 and 12.1 per cent in the army, the navy and the air force respectively.

The Standing Committee on Defence said "The defence ministry should go into the entire gamut of the issue of shortage of officers in all the three services and urgently formulate a plan of action for implementation in a time bound manner."

The report highlights the deficiencies and shortcomings in manpower planning and human resource management in the defence forces.

After the authorised strength of officers in the three forces was increased by 26 per cent, the present level of unfilled vacancies had reached an "unprecedented" level, the report, which was tabled on Tuesday, said.

While making several recommendations, the committee said it was perturbed to know that all the efforts of the defence ministry to resolve the issue, especially those in the last two decades, have failed.

The committee also rejected the defence ministry's plea that youth accorded low priority to a military career and said, "The issue of shortage of officers continues to be viewed in isolation without properly appreciating the complexities of the various aspects of manpower planning and human resource management."

The committee said that with the growing security challenges, every ministry should contribute its share in supporting the defence services.

Saying that some of the recruitment procedures for officers in the armed forces were based on antiquated practices, the committee said, "The format of the Service Selection Board tests has not undergone any major change in the last three decades."

The committee found out that the present selection system was examined by a Chiefs of Staff appointed committee which found the procedures for selection extremely rigorous.

It recommended that an exhaustive review of the selection procedures through SSBs be undertaken and the latest selection techniques be put in place.

It also asked the defence ministry to ensure that candidates with rural backgrounds are not be subjected to language barriers while assessing them during selections. The committee asked the ministry to ensure that fair and transparent systems are put in place for promotion of officers in the forces

Talibanisation could soon devour Pakistan

Praful Bidwai | February 18, 2009 | 16:16 IST

Two-and-a-half months after the Mumbai attacks, and five weeks after New Delhi handed over a detailed dossier on them to Pakistan, Islamabad has finally admitted that the terrorist plot was at least partially planned in Pakistan and that its citizens carried out the operation.

This is a welcome change, and has great significance not just for India-Pakistan relations, but for the future of Pakistan itself. This is probably the first time that any government, apart from Libya, has admitted that its nationals were involved in a terrorist act.

The Pakistan government has indeed come a long, long way from first denying altogether that captured terrorist Amir Ajmal Kasab is a Pakistani national, and then practising other forms of evasion and prevarication, all calculated to duck its responsibility for acting against terrorists.

As recently as February 9, its cabinet's Defence Coordination Committee -- which includes the services chiefs and the head of the Inter-Services Intelligence agency -- said the government would register a case against the attackers, but demanded 'substantial evidence' from India, without which, 'it will be exceedingly difficult to complete the investigation...'

During the past fortnight, there were leaks to the Pakistani media suggesting that Pakistan's Federal Investigation Agency was going to announce that there was no evidence that any of the attackers were Lashkar-e-Tayiba members, but instead, that the conspiracy was planned outside Pakistan -- as if that absolved Islamabad of responsibility or negated the central reality, namely, that the main attackers were Pakistanis.

What explains this dramatic shift? There have been speculative stories suggesting that Pakistan 'blinked' because the United States threatened to cut off aid to Islamabad unless it comes clean. This is a frivolous argument, which fails to comprehend either the complex nature of the US-India-Pakistan relationship or the reality that States don't premise their aid programmes on other, especially third, governments' needs and desires.

The plain truth is that the US needs Islamabad's cooperation in the war against the Taliban-Al Qaeda in Afghanistan and in Pakistan's border areas. At the same time, Washington has considerable leverage on Pakistan. But it's clear that last Wednesday night's telephone call from US President Barack Obama to President Asif Ali Zardari played a role. As did Obama's special representative Richard Holbrooke's talks with Pakistani leaders during his visit to the region. Holbrooke is known as a hard-driving diplomat, or as former Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott put it, 'the equivalent of a hydrogen bomb' in diplomacy!

No less important is the incredible nature of Pakistan's earlier contentions about the origins of the attack, and the solid, incontrovertible evidence contained in India's Mumbai dossier and the diplomatic offensive it mounted.

Pakistan's contentions did stretch credulity. Even if the plot was hatched outside Pakistan, some if not all of its executors were Pakistanis. Naming Austria or Spain as the conspiracy site only suggests the existence of a supra-national jihadi network, it doesn't exonerate Pakistan. Many past terrorist attacks too had a Pakistan link. British Prime Minister Gordon Brown has said that 75 percent of the most serious terror plots being investigated by UK authorities have links to Pakistan.

Islamabad has wisely recognised the flaws in its earlier case. But it still continues to deny that the terrorists were trained by and were acting at the behest of a well-organised group. Rather, it still emphasises the central role of individuals. But it's simply inconceivable that a handful of individuals could have conducted the attacks without being guided by a highly inspired network with a broad political agenda, including promoting pro-Taliban interests and provoking rivalry between India and Pakistan, as well widening the communal divide within India.

All material facts suggest that the attackers were rigorously trained in armed combat, maritime navigation, and use of sophisticated communications techniques including satellite phones and Global Positioning Systems.

The evidence provided in the Indian dossier was nothing if not substantial. One only has to browse through the dossier (external link) to convince oneself of its exceptionally high quality. Apart from information gathered from Kasab's confessions, this includes the names and specific addresses of some of the attackers, and above all, a rich body of circumstantial evidence which will stand legal scrutiny in any civilised country.

The latter includes GPS records recovered from fishing trawler M V Kuber; photographs of armaments and personal effects such as garments, powdered milk cartons and toiletries, with Pakistani markings; and money trails linking Pakistan-based operators to the purchase of a Voice over Internet Protocol platform routed through Europe.

To its credit, Pakistan has confirmed some of this evidence, named a new terrorist figure, Hammad Amin Sadiq, as a key player, and arrested six suspects, including Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhwi. It has also identified three boats in which the attackers travelled from Karachi.

Adviser to the interior ministry Rahman Malik says Pakistan has raised 30 issues seeking more data and information from India, including DNA samples and fingerprints on the rubber dinghies on which the attackers landed in Mumbai, their diaries and other evidence, Kasab's interrogation reports, and transcripts of intercepted conversations between the attackers and their handlers, some of whom are identified by India as belonging to the Lashkar. These demands, or 'requests' as Malik put it, appear reasonable.

India has welcomed the change in the Pakistani position and promised to share whatever information it can. Pakistan has finally shown it is acting in good faith, although it must go farther -- by establishing the attackers' links with jihadi networks and identifying and prosecuting those who trained and guided them. This should lay the basis for a cooperative approach and the joint investigation that Islamabad has been calling for.

This must be conducted with the utmost sincerity. Anything less will damage Pakistan's global stature and credibility. Tackling Pakistan -- a nuclear weapons State hurtling towards chaos, and yet key to the objective of pacifying Afghanistan -- is Obama's greatest foreign policy challenge. According to his aides, Pakistan is the nation that really 'scares' him. This international image is deeply unflattering.

That apart, a strategy based on deception will eventually rebound catastrophically on Pakistan itself. The country is threatened by an Islamist insurgency, economic collapse and a massive crisis of governance. Already, the Taliban's malign influence is spreading unstoppably into society, and into the army and other vital organs of the State. Shielding its supporters in State agencies will undermine the integrity, indeed the viability, of its feeble, near-failing State.

The jihadis have overrun Swat and are going berserk in the frontier and tribal agency areas. As the Lal Masjid episode in Islamabad and the rising incidence of terrorism in Karachi and Lahore show, Talibanisation could soon devour the Pakistani heartland. This calls for sincere, cold sober reflection and urgent corrective steps. The beginning now made must be sustained.

In contrast to the welcome correction on Pakistan's approach to the Mumbai attacks stands Dr A Q Khan's release from house arrest. The Father of the Pakistani Bomb -- a self-confessed purveyor of nuclear weapons technology, who has probably contributed more to nuclear proliferation than any other individual in the world -- was ordered freed by the Islamabad high court, on the basis of a secret out-of-court deal with the government, which deliberately didn't pursue the strong case it had against him. According to physicist and peace activist A H Nayyar, the deal was brokered by Malik, whom Dr Khan thanked profusely for his release.

This will go down as a foul instance of administrative sabotage and judicial malfeasance. The legality of the Islamabad high court is itself dubious. It was created by General Pervez Musharraf without constitutional warrant at a counter to the supreme court and the established high courts after the scandalous sacking of chief justice Iftikhar Choudhry.

The government's motive behind reaching the settlement is probably twofold: to resuscitate a national hero in competition with Justice Choudhry, for whose reinstatement Pakistani lawyers are about to launch a mass agitation, and secondly, to gain some cheap and tawdry popularity by claiming that it stands for Pakistan's 'sovereignty' even as American drones continue to pound its territory. But Islamabad should know better. Sovereignty doesn't lie in nuclear weapons or military prowess. It lies in the people and their welfare.

Dr Khan's is a fit case for investigation and prosecution by an international commission under United Nations auspices, similar to the tribunals on Bosnia and Rwanda. After all, he's privy to invaluable information about various shady deals with North Korea, Libya and Iran. The world has every right to know why and through what means these were transacted.

It's hard to believe that Dr Khan set up a nuclear Wal-Mart purely out of personal greed. He couldn't have carried out his illicit activities, including moving huge enrichment centrifuges out of the Kahuta facility, without the army's help. What explains this complicity and its motives?

The world must know this if it is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and finally eliminate them. Pakistan must cooperate in that effort as it radically reforms its policy.

Defence panel for setting up of federal spy agency
Ajay Banerjee
Tribune News Service

New Delhi, February 25
The Standing Committee on Defence has “strongly” advocated the involvement of armed forces in apex decision-making process. It has also asked the government to set up a federal spy agency and bring the entire military intelligence network under its ambit.

The committee, headed by Balasaheb Vikhe Patil, expressed grave concern over the prevailing situation and strongly recommended “the government to take immediate steps to constitute a federal intelligence agency, covering under its umbrella even the intelligence gathering network of the three services”.

At present, various agencies under the ministry of Home Affairs gather intelligence, which is shared at the multi agency centre (MAC) that has nodes in almost all state capitals.

The committee said the Kargil intrusion in 1999 and the November 26 terror attacks in Mumbai have brought out instances of lack of coordination among different intelligence gathering agencies, including those of military. On involving the forces in the decision-making process, the committee said the staffing pattern in the Ministry of Defence could be changed.

“The armed forces personnel may be appointed at the level of joint secretary and additional secretary so that the armed forces headquarters is involved in national security management and apex decision-making processes,” it said.

This, it said, was needed as the required interface between the Ministry of Defence and armed forces was missing in spite of being suggested by the Kargil Review Committee (KRC).

The Ministry had itself admitted before the committee - constituting MPs from all parties and both Houses of the Parliament - that renaming of Army and Naval headquarters as Integrated headquarters is merely “cosmetic”. The committee, that presented its report in the Lok Sabha yesterday

In another suggestion it said the Prime Minister and Defence Minister must have direct meetings with the Army Commanders and their equivalents in the Navy and Air Force. This could provide a broad-based opinion on defence management.

It also said there was an immediate need for the creation of an additional post of Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) to ensure optimum level of togetherness among the different wings of the armed forces and to provide “single point” military advice to the government. The CDS should be four-star General with a fixed two-years’ tenure.

The post of CDS presently exists in 67 countries, including France, Germany, the UK and USA. The committee also asked the government to constitute a high-powered expert panel to advise on armed forces reforms and restructuring in view of the new security challenges such as the Mumbai terror attacks.

India charges two Pakistani Army officers in Mumbai case


Two men believed to be senior Pakistani Army officers are among the 38 people charged by Indian prosecutors for involvement in the November 2008 terror assault on the financial capital of Mumbai. Of the 38 men charged, 36 are Pakistani nationals.

Pakistani Army officers Major General Saab and Colonel R Saadat Ullah and six senior Lashkar-e-Taiba are among 35 men wanted by India for the assault by sea that resulted in 164 Indians and foreigners killed, according to the Press Trust of India. Indian officials have previously stated that a man described as "Major General" was one of the handlers for the Mumbai terrorists.

"Two supposedly Pakistan Army names with designations have been named in the chargesheet," Rakesh Maria, the Joint Commissioner of Mumbai Police, told reporters. "Whether they are serving or part of the Lashkar-e-Taiba hierarchy is a part of investigation."

Maria described the men behind the attacks as "fedayeen," a term used for Islamist suicide squads.

Six senior leaders of the Lashkar-e-Taiba have been charged in the Mumbai assault. Hafiz Mohammed Saeed is the founder of the Lashkar-e-Taiba and its successor, the Jamaat-ud-Dawa. He is currently under a lax house arrest in Pakistan. Zaki-ur Rehman Lakhvi is Lashkar-e-Taiba's senior military commander. Yusuf Muzammil is the terror group's senior operations commander. He is currently in Pakistani custody.

Zarar Shah is the Lashkar-e-Taiba communications expert who set up the network that allowed the Mumbai terrorists to speak with Lashkar-e-Taiba commanders in Pakistan during the attack. He also served as a key liaison between the terror group and Pakistan's Inter-Service Intelligence agency. Zarar is currently in Pakistani custody and has admitted to his role in the Mumbai attacks.

Abu Kafa is a commander who was one of the handlers that directed the Mumbai assault teams as they conducted their attack. Abu Hamza is also a senior military commander.

Three of those charged are currently in Indian custody. They are: Ajmal Amir Kasab, the lone surviving Mumbai terrorist; and Indian nationals Fahim Ansari and Sabauddin, both of whom were aware of the plan to strike the city. All three men are Lashkar-e-Taiba operatives. Sabauddin served as the leader of Lashkar-e-Taiba in Nepal and aided in smuggling Lashkar terrorists across the border between India and Pakistan.

The other Lashkar-e-Taiba operatives and facilitators who have been charged have been identified as Mohammad Sayed, Abu Al Kama, Abu Fahad, Abu Abdul Rehman, Abu Anas, Abu Imran, Abu Mufti Sayed, Hakim Saab, Yousif, Murshid, Atib, Abu Umar Sayed, Usman, Karak Singh, Mohammad Ishfaq, Javid Iqbal, Sajid Iftekar, Kuram Shahbad, Abu Abdur Rehman, Abu Mavia, Abu Anees, Abu Bashir, Abu Khan, Abu Sariya, Abu-ur-Rehman, Abu Imran, and Hakim Saheb.

India released a dossier of evidence for the Mumbai case in early January 2008 detailing conversations between the handlers and the Mumbai assault team as the operation was underway as well as information on the planning of the attacks and the transportation and communications that were used.

Pakistani officials initially dismissed the dossier, with one senior diplomat claiming it may have been "fabricated." The Pakistani government ultimately admitted that the attacks were plotted on its soil and has filed a police report against Lakhvi, Zarar, Abu Hamza, and five other Pakistanis. Six of those charged are in Pakistani custody.


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