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Wednesday, 13 January 2010

From Today's Papers - 13 Jan 10






Antony: CRPF to control J-K highways from Jan 15
Jupinderjit Singh
Tribune News Service

Jammu, January 12
With an improved situation on the terror front in the state, the Army’s visibility would be far less from January 15 onwards, as Defence Minister AK Antony today announced that the CRPF would take control of the highways and the police would have a greater role in urban areas.

Besides, the Defence Minister said his ministry had written to the Home Ministry to give instructions to the security forces to discontinue the use of “combat” uniform to ensure their lesser visibility. The minister said this while addressing the top brass of various security forces and agencies at the Unified Headquarters in Jammu today.
He disclosed that on the request of the Defence Ministry, the Home Ministry had issued instructions to the CRPF to take over the entire responsibility of the opening of roads on the Jammu-Srinagar National Highway-1A from January 15. “This has been done to reduce the visibility of the Army, without in any way, diluting our counter-terrorist grid,” he added.
Antony said a request had also been sent to the MHA to issue instructions for the discontinuation of the use of combat uniform by all central police organisations and the state police.
The minister, however, did not make any statement on troop withdrawal from the state, which was the main demand of the state government. He asked the security agencies not to be complacent and work towards consolidating the gains achieved in the last couple of years.
Antony said year 2010 may prove to be crucial as forces inimical to stability and peace in the state would make all-out efforts to neutralise the gains of 2008 and 2009, when the state witnessed considerable improvement in the security situation.
“The incidents of the first week of January in the valley are indicative of the shape of things to come,” the Defence Minister said in reference to the terrorist attack in the Lal Chowk area of Srinagar.Antony said time had now come for the state police to shoulder far greater responsibility, particularly in major towns, in tackling the threat of terrorism. However, the handing over of the responsibility must be meticulously planned and undertaken in a gradual, phased manner,” he said.
Taking part in the deliberations, Chief Minister Omar Abdullah requested the Defence Minister to explore the possibility of recruiting more youth from the state in the three armed forces.





9th EME Corps reunion enthralls one and all  
Chitranjan Sawant   Tue, Jan 12, 2010 18:09:53 IST  
HERE I am in the number one EME centre, Secunderabad to do the running commentary on the ninth reunion of the Corps. No less a person than the director general EME and the senior Colonel Commandant Lieutenant General Ajay Kumar Singh Chandele, AVSM called me long distance from Secunderabad and told me to pack my bags to fly there from Noida-Delhi to do the running commentaries on the major events of the reunion.
 

The time was at a premium. He called me on January 2 and wanted me to board the first convenient aircraft on January 6. An old family friend from his father's days who happened to be my boss as Commandant of the Centre at Pachmarhi when I was the executive man to organise the colour presentation of the Army Educational Corps in February 1971, I didn’t have the heart to say no to him. An additional bait thrown in was a free air travel to and fro for my wife, Sudha too, besides that of mine. Too tempting to resist. I was in Secunderabad Deccan before one could say Jack Robinson.
 

The right royal treatment given to me and my wife from the word go, at the instance of General Ajay Chandele, was unbelievable. His wife, Promilla was equally caring and loving, if not more. I knew my wife and I were being pampered and that there was no way out but to add some more flab around the waist. There was no way out of it and we just allowed ourselves to be spoilt as guests. Writing a short piece on this is just one way of expressing my gratitude to the Chandeles
.
Reunion all the way


The retired officers, junior commissioned officers and jawans came from all over the world. No nook or corner of India, that is Bharat, was left out. Old officers like General Sundaram were generous in their praise of the Senior Colonel Commandant and his team of officers and men. The events like the Ceremonial Parade, the Mega Carnival in the polo ground, the Bara Khana, the wreath laying at the Obelisk, a memorial to the immortal soldier, and finally a congregation at the Guruvayoor temple in the Military College of Electronic & Mechanical Engineering (MCEME0 went off with clockwork precision.
 

Everyone knew what he or she was supposed to do and did just that. The ceremonial parade was reviewed by General Chandele and his address at the parade ground was indeed an inspiring one. He recited a stanza of a Hindi poem and conveyed to men and the commander his appreciation of the superb drill, excellent turnout and impressive drill of all ranks.
 

The four foreign officers, two from Sri Lanks and two from the Great Britain could not resist the temptation of showering praises on the officers and men who had toiled to take the Corps to where it is at the moment.
 

Brigadier Bibhuti Bhushan, his officers, JCOs and jawans burnt the midnight oil to make the reunion a grand success. The toiled day and night, rehearsing for the ceremonial parade, assembling stuff and putting in place at the polo grounds for the Maha Mela, the mega carnival can attract the attention of the common citizen down South, specially the Andhra pradesh.
 

Sarva dharm sabha
It is a novel idea of General Chandele to bring all sections of the Corps of electronics and mechanical engineers together emotionally. The common complaint is: religion divides. The Senior Colonel Commandant has sown the seed of the grand idea of singing bhajans together where the theme is the focal tenets of major religions of the country, nay the world. General Chandele's idea was put into practice by Lieutenant Geneneral Inder Jit Singh, Commandant of the MCEME ably assisted by his deputy Major General Subramaniam. The ladies, be it Mrs Promilla Chandele, Mrs IJ Singh or Mrs Subramanium were never away from the scene of action. They suggested, they acted and they achieved results.
 

Lieutenant Colonel Budhuri led the choir of men and women who sang from their hearts and moved mountains to bring in emotional integration. On the day of the final performance, none could be happier than General Ajay Chandele in seeing that his novel idea was taking firm roots and that the audience was more than appreciative.   The need of the hour is to have it staged at other important centers so that a larger number of men and women become its votaries.
 

Foreign friends
The senior officers from Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom who belong to the EME of their respective countries, felt emotionally bonded to our EME in India. It was not wining and dining that mattered but it was the togetherness and the emotional integration with India that they will cherish for a long time to come. Mrs Chandrika had a pleasant surprise when the EME band struck the birthday number at the evening reunion show and the officers sang for her. It was an emotional experience that she would not like to forget.
 

All said and done, the ninth reunion of the Corps of EME was a grand show. There were more officers this time, more men this time than ever before. It adds an additional feather to the much feathered cap of General Ajay Chandele and his team of loyal and devoted officers and men.






India inches closer to non-permanent UNSC seat
Betwa Sharma/ PTI / United Nations January 12, 2010, 22:25 IST

India inched closer to getting a non-permanent seat on the 15-member UNSC with its sole competitor from Asia, Kazakhstan, backing out of the crucial race.

"We have done very well. The kind of support that India commands is very substantial," a senior diplomat told PTI, with New Delhi enjoying extensive backing among UN member-states 10 months ahead of voting in the General Assembly.

To win, India needs two-thirds of the General Assembly vote, which adds up to about 128 member states supporting it. The voting for the term starting in 2011 will take place in October 2010.

Kazakhstan being a member of the Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC), an association of 56-Islamic states, was viewed by Indian as a serious competitor since it stood a good chance of getting the votes of a hefty number of Arab and Muslim nations in the General Assembly.

Indian sources here noted that Astana saw that winning a seat was unlikely and decided to engage their multilateral efforts elsewhere.

"It is important to understand that Kazakhstan withdrew with no ill feelings towards us. It was a friendly competition," the diplomat said.

However, diplomats here cautioned that India has not crossed the finishing line yet.

There is no guarantee that all nations that promise to vote, will end up voting. A late entry in the coming months can also split the votes.

"There are always spoilers so we have to keep the campaign going," diplomatic sources said.





BSF foils infiltration attempt along Indo-Pak border
January 11, 2010 09:25 IST
In the fourth infiltration bid in a week, militants triggered a blast to cut into the border fencing but the Border Security Force troops foiled their attempt after a fierce gunbattle between the two sides in Akhnoor sector of Jammu district in the wee hours on Monday.

Taking advantage of the dense fog in the area, a group of militants triggered a blast near the border fencing in Alfa Machel border outpost in Akhnoor, 35 kms from Jammu, a senior BSF official said troops of 122 battalion fired at the infiltrating militants and the subsequent gunbattle between the two sides continued for over an hour.

The militants then fled back. As the fence has been cut, a major search operation has been launched in the area to find out whether any militant has managed to sneak in.

This is the fourth infiltration attempt along the International Border and Line of Control [ Images ] in a week. The first infiltration bid this year was foiled by BSF at Narianpur Border Out Post in Ramgarh sub-sector of Samba district on January 4.

It was followed by another infiltration bid along LoC in Balakote area of Poonch district on January 8. A patrolling party of BSF also foiled another infiltration bid after a brief firefight when militants after cutting the fence had come inside in the forward area of Garkhal in Pargwal belt of Akhnoor tehsil in Jammu district on Sunday.





Darjeeling Land Scam
Army initiates action against tainted Generals
Ajay Banerjee
Tribune News Service

New Delhi, January 12
The Army today initiated disciplinary action against a senior Lieutenant General which could lead to a court martial, while separately administrative action has been initiated against three other top officers for their role in a land scam in West Bengal.

Army chief Gen Deepak Kapoor had directed Adjutant General Lt Gen Mukesh Sabharwal to issue notices for taking action against Military Secretary Lt Gen Avadesh Prakash, Lt Gen PK Rath, Lt Gen Ramesh Halgali and Major General P Sen, after a probe had reportedly held them culpable in the land scam.
The scope of the administrative action will be as wide as warning to termination from service. This means the Military Secretary will be saved from the ignominy of facing a sack.
Senior Army officers said here that disciplinary action had been initiated against Lt Gen Rath, who had a major role to play in the issuance of signing of a memorandum of understanding with a private realtor for a 70-acre plot adjacent to the Sukna military station near Darjeeling.
Rath during the court of inquiry had blamed the Military Secretary. However, officials explained that this was not enough for Rath to escape as he was the one who ultimately signed the papers in his previous capacity as GOC 33 corps. Lt Gen PK Rath was the deputy chief-designate, however, his appointment had been put on hold. Lt Gen GM Nair, who is the outgoing GOC 9 corps Yol Camp, is tipped to the deputy chief.
Lt Gen Avadesh Prakash and two other generals have been served a show-cause notice.
The Army chief submitted his recommendation to the Ministry of Defence after going through the findings of the court of inquiry which was held in eastern command headquarters in Kolkata.
The Army chief’s ruling is in contrast to the recommendation of the eastern Army commander Lt Gen V K Singh, who had claimed that there was enough ground for the termination of Lt Gen Avadesh Prakash’s service. Gen Singh had sought administrative action against the three other officers, Lt Gen PK Rath, corps commander Lt Gen Ramesh Halgali and Maj Gen P Sen.
But Lt Gen Avadesh Prakash has only been served a show-cause notice asking him to explain why administrative action should not be taken against him. He is due to retire on January 31. The show-cause notice will allow him to retire without getting punished while in service. He gets 30 days to respond. 






India, Bangladesh Improve Security Ties
By vivek raghuvanshi
Published: 12 Jan 2010 13:38

NEW DELHI - India and Bangladesh are to sign three security-related deals - on mutual legal assistance in criminal matters, mutual transfer of convicted prisoners, and cooperation against international terrorism, organized crime and illegal drug trafficking - during the Jan. 11-14 visit here of Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina.

A Defence Minsitry official here said India and Bangladesh will also strengthen their defense cooperation in the future.
Related Topics

    * Asia & Pacific Rim

Relations between the two neighbors started looking up after Sheikh Hasina came to power in Bangladesh last year.

India wants to ensure that Bangladesh doesn't drift toward China, said defense analyst Mahindra Singh, a retired Indian Army brigadier. There have been reports that China has access to Bangladesh ports and is hoping to locate a military base there, Singh said.

India helped Bangladesh, formerly East Pakistan, during its 1971 war for independence from Pakistan, but there have been exchanges of fire along the border between the two countries related to instances of forced migration and smuggling.




Pentagon Intelligence Chief Urges Pakistan to Keep Up Pressure on Militants

The top US defense intelligence officer says it is not clear how successful Pakistan's military operations have been in reducing the Taliban threat to US and NATO troops. The chief of the Defense Intelligence Agency tells VOA the Pakistani army should keep up the pressure.

Pakistan army soldiers patrol in Kabal, a village of Pakistan's Swat Valley, which used to be a Taliban stronghold (File)
Photo: AP

Pakistan army soldiers patrol in Kabal, a village of Pakistan's Swat Valley, which used to be a Taliban stronghold (File)

Lieutenant General Ronald Burgess said there have been notable successes against the Taliban and al-Qaida by U.S. troops in Afghanistan and Pakistani troops on the other side of the border in South Waziristan and Swat.

"I think that we have been very successful in our operations in Afghanistan, and I think that our Pakistani partners have been fairly successful in some of their undertakings," he said.  "But what we see happening with al-Qaida is that they still have the ability, working with the Taliban and some of the other groups in there, to cause pain and to bring about some of the more spectacular events that may occur from time to time," he added.

Lieutenant General Ronald Burgess, US Defense Intelligence Agency Chief
DoD
Lieutenant General Ronald Burgess, US Defense Intelligence Agency Chief

In an exclusive VOA interview, General Burgess says it is not clear how much the Pakistani military operations have reduced the threat to American and NATO troops in Afghanistan.

"What is unclear to me as I look at it as an intelligence professional is how many of the enemy have actually been taken off the board, so to speak.  Or has the enemy melted away into the countryside or moved to another location?" Burgess asked.  "While there is always something to be gained by forcing an enemy out of its sanctuary, at the end of the day I think this is an enemy that you are going to have to kill," he said.

Pakistan's military - reluctantly, according to many American analysts - began a ground offensive in October to clear out the terrorist sanctuaries in the South Waziristan area of Pakistan's tribal lands. 

On the other side of the border, General Burgess said there is not as much of a traditional lull in fighting in Afghanistan's winter months as in previous years.

"The enemy always has a vote.  In the past we have seen a drawdown, if you will, in terms of their activities over what we would call the winter months.  We Are not sure we are going to see that as much this winter," he said.  "We expect to see the numbers this winter, in terms of engagements and casualties if you will, to be up over last winter.  But I think you will not see the numbers that you saw, for example, during the summertime just because of the nature of the seasons over there," he said.

A nagging question remains of whether Pakistan is helping the Taliban as part of a grand strategy to thwart growing influence in Afghanistan by Pakistan's arch-rival India.  The allegation is common among many Western analysts, but Pakistan denies it.

General Burgess says he takes Pakistan's top leaders at their word.  But, he adds, lower-ranking officers of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate, the ISI, may be helping the militants without official sanction.

"They say that there is no official relationship that exists with those [groups]," he said.  "But that is not to say that inside an intelligence organization that at some lower level, as far down as you might want to go, that someone does still not have an old relationship that may have spanned the last 15 or 20 years.  That is somewhat in the nature of the intelligence business.  But I am comfortable that there is no official connection that I see at this time," said Burgess.

Afghans chant anti American slogans in Kabul, Afghanistan during a protest against killings of 10 civilians allegedly by coalition forces in Kunar province, 30 Dec 2009

A just-released report by the chief of U.S. military intelligence in Afghanistan calls military intelligence efforts there token and ineffectual.  In the report - released without Pentagon approval - Major General Michael Flynn said analysts focus almost exclusively on insurgent groups, but know little about the social and political environment in which they operate.

General Burgess says he would have preferred the issue to have been kept within the intelligence family, calling the report's release outside of official channels "unusual".  He says he does not agree with all of General Flynn's recommendations, but says they deserve serious study since he is the top military intelligence officer in Afghanistan.

"As the J-2 [intelligence chief] he has identified some of those shortcomings.  And so now we as entity need to address some of those.  But at the end of the day he, as the J-2 on the ground, has to allocate the resources to get the information the commander needs," he said.

General Burgess says DIA is also studying what lessons it can learn from the December 30 suicide bombing at a CIA base in Afghanistan that killed 7 CIA officers and a Jordanian intelligence official.

"We all have folks on the ground out there doing that type of mission.  And what we have taken that to do for us here inside the Defense Intelligence Agency is, "Okay, what facts can we glean from that?" He asked.  "And because we are a learning organization, what can we take from that and apply to our tactics, techniques, and procedures to ensure that we try to mitigate the possibility of something like that happening?  But, you know, this is war," he concluded.

About 30,000 additional U.S. troops are being deployed to Afghanistan in the coming months as part of a new strategy.  An undisclosed number of them will be military intelligence personnel.





US offers its latest fighter to India
New Delhi, Jan 12

The US has offered to India yet another sophisticated defence system, this time its fifth generation F-35 Lightning-II fighter aircraft.

The "possible sale" of this aircraft, which is still under development, was mentioned in the past "if the Indian Air Force (IAF) purchased the F 16 Super Viper for its Medium Multi Role Combat Aircraft (M-MRCA) requirement."

But according to a report in the coming issue of India Strategic defence magazine, Lockheed Martin, which manufactures these both aircraft, has now made a presentation without this condition to the Indian Navy for its carrier-borne aircraft requirements in about seven to eight years from now.

India Strategic quoted Orville Prins, Lockheed Martin’s vice president for business development, as saying that the presentation was made after a Request for Information (RFI) for newer generation of aircraft was received from the Indian Navy recently.

Prins pointed out though the company had been authorized by the US Department of Defense (DOD) to make the presentation, its sale could be done only after a bilateral agreement between Washington and New Delhi.

Arms and weapon systems are developed by private companies in the US with government funding, but the DoD controls their sales. Foreign military sales are undertaken after clearance from the Department of State.

The US is steadily emerging as a new supplier of sophisticated arms to India, which urgently needs to replace and augment its mostly outdated Soviet-vintage systems with the high technology weapons of the 21st century.

Only last month, India placed Letters of Request (LoRs), or firm orders, for 10 long-range strategic lift transport Boeing C 17 Globemaster III aircraft for the IAF and 145 Bofors ultra-light M 777 howitzers for mountain operations by the Indian Army.

Originally a Swedish company, Bofors was sold in 2000 to the US United Defense, and later to the US arm of BAE Systems. The Indian army is badly in need of various types of artillery guns and its acquisition process has been mired in one problem or another for years now.

According to Air Marshal Ashok Goel (Retd), India has less than 20 IL 76 heavy lift transport aircraft, and although they have served the IAF well, they would need to be replaced in about ten years or so. In April 2010, the IL squadrons with the IAF will mark their 25 years.

Prins said that Lockheed Martin was also offering the “the world’s most advanced ship-borne anti-missile system, Aegis, to India” and that presentation on this had also been made to the Indian Navy.

Apparently as a technology demonstration, the US had used the Aegis system to shoot down a satellite in February 2008 by firing a Raytheon SM-2 missile.

India has already acquired 12 artillery Weapon Locating Radars (WLRs) from Raytheon under a 2002 deal, which was actually the first arms transfer to India by the US after its embargos following India’s 1974 and 1998 nuclear tests.

In 2008, IAF placed orders for six Lockheed Martin C 130J Special Operations aircraft, with an option for six more along with training and infrastructure development package.

Prins said that the necessary transfer of equipment and training was under way and that delivery schedule for the aircraft will be adhered to as per the agreement.

The JSF is a fifth-generation aircraft, to be used by the US Air Force, Navy and Marines, and perhaps will be the last manned aircraft by that country before unmanned, high-powered long-range drones and helicopters fully take over the skies by the middle of this century.

Notably, India has already signed an agreement with Russia to develop a fifth generation fighter aircraft and it is due to be inducted into IAF by 2017. It is not known when and if this aircraft will have a naval variant.





US weapons for India
Technology transfer remains an issue
by Gulshan R. Luthra
THE India-US defence cooperation seems to be steadily growing with Washington now offering its latest Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) F-35 Lightning-II aircraft to India. But in the long run, there could be limitations over issues of transfer of technology (ToT) that India mandates now for major arms deals.
Representatives of Lockheed Martin, which is developing the aircraft, had indicated in the past that the aircraft could be available to India if the Indian Air Force (IAF) opted for the F-16 Super Viper in its quest for some 200 Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MRCAs) but recently the company made a presentation to the Indian Navy without this condition.
Lockheed Martin’s Vice President for Business Development Orville Prins told India Strategic defence magazine that the presentation about F 35 was made to the Indian Navy recently after it expressed interest in the newer generation of aircraft for its future carrier-based aircraft requirements.
Although the best of the weapon systems in the US are developed by private companies, the funding for their research and development is provided by the government, which exercises control on the resultant products and their sale to any foreign country. ToT is a serious issue and in most cases, technology, particularly source codes, is not shared even with Washington’s best allies in the West or the East.
Lockheed Martin apparently made the presentation to India after an authorisation by the US Department of Defense (DOD), but Prins pointed out that the F 35 could be sold only after clearance from the US State Department, for which bilateral negotiations between New Delhi and Washington would need to be held once India expressed its interest.
The US is steadily emerging as a new supplier of sophisticated arms to India, which urgently needs to replace and augment its mostly outdated Soviet-vintage systems with high technology weapons of the 21st century.
Beginning 2002, when an agreement for the sale of 12 Raytheon’s artillery and short-range missile tracker system, the AN/TPQ 37 Weapon Locating Radars (WLRs) was signed, the US has supplied systems worth nearly $ 4 billion.
The figure though is much lower than what India still spends on air, land and sea systems from Russia. For instance, India has already committed to buy 280 SU 30 MKI aircraft, several ships, missiles and more.
US companies are steadily making presentations in India, and the acquisition of WLRs has been followed by deals for Boeing P8-I Multimission Maritime Aircraft (MMA) for anti-submarine operations in the Indian Ocean, Harpoon anti-shipping missiles, Lockheed Martin’s six C 130J Special Operations aircraft with an option for six more, one amphibious transport dock ship Trenton, named INS Jalashwa, and its six onboard Sikorsky helicopters at nominal rates.
Over the last few weeks now, the Indian Ministry of Defence has sent firm orders, or Letters of Request (LoR) for 10 C 17 Globemaster III strategic lift aircraft for the Indian Air Force (IAF) and 145 Bofors M 777 ultra light howitzers the Indian Army badly needs for its mountain operations.
The competing gun from Singapore Technologies lost out as the company was mired in allegations of corruption in an Indian Ordnance Factory Board scam.
Originally, a Swedish company, Bofors, was purchased by the US United Defense in 2000, and later acquired by the US arm of BAE Systems. In fact, as the US Administration had imposed restrictions on the sale of military equipment to India after the 1998 nuclear tests, President Bill Clinton went out of the way to allow United Defense-Bofors an exception to sell its guns to India if the Indian Army opted for them.
The Indian Army is badly in need of various types of artillery guns, and keeping in mind the developments in the neighbourhood, the Indian government recently cleared the acquisition of this ultra light howitzer in a government-to-government deal under the US Foreign Military Sales (FMS) programme.
The gun has been deployed with excellent results in the rugged mountains of Afghanistan. Made with titanium alloys, the M777 is about 40 per cent lighter than a standard gun and can be easily transported under-slung by a helicopter.
Bofors has been much maligned in India due to the allegations of corruption in the sale of its 155 mm FH 77B guns in the mid-1980s. Operationally, however, these guns played a significant role in India ‘s victory in the 1999 Kargil War to evict Pakistani intruders from the Himalayan heights on the Indian side of the border.
India has also deployed the gun at the highest battlefield in the world at Siachin. Ferrying them to those daunting heights in parts and then assembling them has been a tedious job by itself for the Army.
LoRs for both the C17 and M777 have been issued only in the past couple of weeks. India has less than 20 IL 76 Soviet-supplied IL 76 aircraft, which will mark 25 years of their induction in April 2010.
The C 17 has nearly double the capacity of an IL 76 but full load on an aircraft is never really carried as it hinders its range and fuel capacity. Unlike the IL 76, the C 17 can be refuelled midair for much longer flights, and needs only two pilots and one loadmaster for operations, that is half the crew of what the IL 76 requires.
Despite its massive size, the C 17 can take off and land on unpaved grassy fields like a football ground at very steep angles, an important capability in battle conditions. It’s the same for C 130J. On offer is also Northrop Grumman’s Hawkeye E2-D, a battle management and electronic warfare aircraft that can operate from carriers or land.
Like the Boeing P8-I, this aircraft is also under development for the US Navy, and if the Indian Navy opts for it, then it would get this highly sophisticated technology at nearly the same time as the US Navy.
According to Orville Prins, Lockheed Martin had also given demonstrations on “the world’s most advanced shipboard anti-missile Aegis system,” which had been used two in 2008 to shoot down a satellite apparently as part of technology demonstration by Washington.
Boeing’s Integrated Defense Systems head for India, Dr Vivek Lall, describes this transfer as “unprecedented.” The US is steadily opening its stable of sophisticated weapons to India. But how far India goes in buying the US systems will largely depend not only on the technology and price offered, but also on the transfer of technology that most major deals now warrant as a policy.






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