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Tuesday, 9 March 2010

From Today's Papers - 09 Mar 2010







Defence projects behind schedule
Ajay Banerjee
Tribune News Service

New Delhi, March 8
Even as several key defence projects are running behind schedule by years, the Ministry of Defence, in a written reply to a question in Parliament today declared “…there are no setbacks in the modernisation programme of Armed Forces”. In the same reply, however, it has admitted that delay occurs over several reasons.

The Ministry added “(modernisation) is a continuous process based on threat perception, technological changes and available resources”. This was in response to a question posed by three Lok Sabha MPs. The modernisation is undertaken through procurement of defence equipment/ platforms in accordance with the provisions of Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP), the Ministry said.

Contrary to the reply, stark realities are that Indian Army’s artillery gun purchase is running behind schedule by a decade. The Army air defence is straddled with vintage guns while network-centric operations of the Indian Army are yet to be implemented. The Battlefield Surveillance System (BSS) is yet to mature. The Navy warship building programme is running behind schedule.

The schedule for building submarines is so slow that the Comptroller and Auditor-General had to intervene last year to point out the slow movement. The sea-borne aircraft carrier Admiral Gorshkov is behind schedule by five years. The upgradation of fighter planes of the Indian Airforce is also running behind schedule and so is the medium load transport plane






No time to examine ad featuring ex-PAF chief, says DAVP

Press Trust of India / New Delhi March 8, 2010, 17:29 IST


The Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity (DAVP) has sought to wash its hands off the controversial ad featuring an ex-Pakistan airforce chief, by saying it was given to it by the ministry concerned a day before its publication and not five days in advance as was required.


The DAVP, in an RTI reply, has said the ministries have to send designs for advertisements five days in advance of the publication date so that any improper or objectionable material could be brought to their notice.


However, the controversial advertisement was sent to DAVP by the Women and Child Development Ministry on Saturday, just a day before it was published on the occassion of National Girl Child Day -- January 24.


"The design was submitted on a Saturday (holiday) afternoon and it was to be published on January 24, 2010 (Sunday). There was no time to examine the design in detail," the directorate said in the reply.


It said in case of advertisments designed by outside agencies, as was in this case, the responsiblity of "appropriateness and correctness of the visual information" used in the advertisement lies with the ministry concerned.






Chinese cyber-attacks give NATO sleepless nights

March 08, 2010 11:44 IST

NATO diplomatic sources have told The Times that the Chinese have become very active with cyber-attacks.


'We are now getting regular warnings from the office for internal security,' they said, adding that the number of attacks had increased significantly over the past 12 months.


China, they said, is among the most active players.


In United States, an official report released on Friday said the number of attacks on Congress and other government agencies had risen exponentially in the past year to an estimated 1.6 billion every month.


The Chinese cyber-penetration of key offices in both NATO and the EU has led to restrictions in the normal flow of intelligence because there are concerns that secret intelligence reports might be vulnerable.


Sources at the Office for Cyber Security at the Cabinet Office in London [ Images ], set up last year, said there were two forms of attack -- those focusing on disrupting computer systems and others involving 'fishing trips' for sensitive information.


A special team has been set up at GCHQ, the government communications headquarters in Gloucestershire, to counter the growing cyber threat affecting intelligence material. The team becomes operational this month.


British and American cyber defences are among the most sophisticated in the world, but "the EU is less competent", James Lewis, of the Centre for Strategic and International Studies, said.


The lack of routine intelligence sharing between the US and the EU also contributes to the vulnerability of European systems, another analyst said.


Jonathan Evans, Director-General of MI5, had warned in 2007 that several States were actively involved in large-scale cyber-attacks. Although he did not specify which States were involved, security officials have indicated that China now poses the gravest threat. Beijing [ Images ] has denied making such attacks.


Robert Mueller, FBI Director, has warned that, in addition to the danger of foreign states making cyber attacks, Al-Qaeda [ Images ] could in the future pose a similar threat. In a speech to a security conference last week, Mueller said terrorist groups were using the Internet to recruit members and plan attacks.






Who will be the next Chief of Army Staff (COAS) in Pakistan?

Posted on March 8, 2010 by Moin Ansari


Later this year, President Asif Ali Zardari will appoint a new army chief. Faultlines within the state could be forced open.


“India,” Pakistan President Asif Ali Zardari famously said in an October 2008 interview, “has never been a threat to Pakistan.” In his first major interview, given just a month after taking office, he described jihadists in Jammu and Kashmir as “terrorists.” He imagined “Pakistani cement factories being constructed to provide for India’s huge infrastructure needs, Pakistani textile mills meeting Indian demand for blue jeans, Pakistani ports being used to relieve the congestion at Indian ones.”


Early last month, Pakistan’s army chief, General Pervez Ashfaq Kayani, outlined a rather different vision. In a presentation to the media, he asserted that the Pakistan army was an “India-centric institution,” adding this “reality will not change in any significant way until the Kashmir issue and water disputes are resolved.” His words were not dissimilar in substance from the language used by jihadists such as Lashkar-e-Taiba chief Hafiz Mohammad Saeed in recent speeches.


Later this year, President Zardari will make a decision that could force open the faultlines between the military-led establishment and the Pakistan People’s Party. Gen. Kayani is scheduled to retire in November 2010. Mr. Zardari, as the commander-in-chief, holds the power to appoint his successor.


Ever since Gen. Kayani — a former Inter-Services Intelligence chief — took office, the Pakistani state has set out on escalating tensions along its eastern frontier. Fighting along the Line of Control has increased, and jihadist infiltration escalated reversing an eight-year trend. Last week, Jammu and Kashmir secessionists were told by Pakistan’s Foreign Secretary Salman Bashir that his country had reverted to its traditional policies on the state — policies that included unconcealed support for jihadists. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s secret envoy Satinder Lambah, who has been holding secret meetings with his Pakistani counterpart Riaz Mohammad Khan, has discovered that Islamabad no longer appears interested in pursuing a five-principles path to peace advocated by the former President, Pervez Musharraf.


The army, it has long been evident, loathes its commander-in-chief: Mr. Zardari, for example, is never invited to address the staff at military installations.


Last year, Mr. Zardari was forced to hand over control of the National Command Authority, which controls Pakistan’s nuclear assets, to Prime Minister Yusuf Raza Gilani. The military also appears to have been working hard to strip Mr. Zardari of his sole source of authority over the army. In January, Parliament’s constitutions reforms committee unanimously agreed that Article 243 be amended to give the Prime Minister—rather than the President — effective power to appoint the services chiefs. Even as things stand, Mr. Zardari could face resistance if he picks a chief of his choice. Defence Secretary Syed Athar Ali is a former Lieutenant-General; his predecessor in office, retired Lieutenant-General Iftikhar Ali Khan, refused to sign on the former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif’s orders sacking the then army chief, Gen. Pervez Musharraf.


But come November, Mr. Zardari will likely hold the ace in his hand — and a bitter struggle could break out if he chooses to play it.


Gen. Kayani’s three years in office have enabled him to build a substantial constituency within the army. For a variety of reasons, the army chief was able to promote a record number of top officers, and give others coveted positions. In 2008, Gen. Kayani promoted six officers to the rank of Lieutenant-General, and assigned several other Lieutenants-General and Major-Generals to prestigious offices. Last year, four more officers were promoted Lieutenants-General. From March onwards, eight Lieutenants-General will retire — including ISI Director-General Ahmad Shuja Pasha, Chief of General Staff Muhammad Mustafa Khan, Quartermaster General Zahid Hussain, and commander of the Karachi-based V Corps Shahid Iqbal. New opportunities will thus arise for Gen. Kayani to dispense patronage.


Islamabad military gossip has it that Gen. Kayani may use his goodwill within the army to lobby for a further year in office, as part of a deal which would also secure Mr. Zardari’s position. Gen. Kayani may also attempt to have himself selected chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. General Tariq Majeed, head of the JCSC, is due to retire just days before Gen. Kayani — a coincidence that could ease the move. If that indeed is Gen. Kayani’s intention, though, he will unlikely be satisfied with the largely ceremonial position of JCSC chief. He could lobby for supervisory powers over top appointments — a move that would likely have President Zardari’s support, since it would create tensions between the JCSC and the new army chief.


Gen. Kayani’s own favoured choice for his successor, should he not secure an extension for himself, is the current ISI chief, Gen. Pasha, who is due to retire on March 18, 2010. However, Gen. Pasha has had a relatively brief tenure as Pakistan’s spymaster — a fact which, read along with the critical state of affairs in the country, could justify an extension. Lieutenant-General Masood Alam, who heads the critical Peshawar-based XI Corps, was recently given an extension on just these grounds. However, Gen. Pasha has never commanded a Corps — normally a prerequisite for the top job.


Lieutenant-General Nadeem Taj will likely be the second in line for the army’s top job, if Gen. Pasha’s extension does not come through early in March. Now serving as commander of the Gujranwala-based XXX Corps, Gen. Taj is scheduled to retire only in April 2011 — and thus has time on his side. Long a key Musharraf aide, Gen. Taj was appointed Director-General of Military Intelligence, a position he held until February 2005. Later, he commanded the Lahore-based 11 Infantry Division, and served as commandant of the Pakistan Military Academy.


But any move to appoint Gen. Taj is likely to encounter intense resistance from the United States — and with some reason. Gen. Taj was made ISI Director-General in September 2007, just before Gen. Kayani replaced Gen. Musharraf as army chief. By late that year — as Gen. Kayani brought about changes in policy that the army saw as more consonant with its interests than the pro-western position of President Musharraf — Gen. Taj found himself in trouble with the U.S. In August 2008, President George W. Bush was reported to have complained that it had become “impossible to share intelligence on the al-Qaeda and the Taliban with Pakistan because it goes straight back to the militants.” Eventually, in October 2008, Gen. Taj was moved out of the ISI — but rewarded with charge of a prestigious Corps.


Khalid Shameem Wynne, Lieutenant-General who leads the Quetta-based XII corps and the army’s southern command, appears the third in line for the top job — and least contentious among those in the race. From a family with a long military tradition — his father, Colonel Arshad Wynne, served during the India-Pakistan war of 1971— Gen. Wynne started his career in the 20 Punjab Regiment. He held several important posts, notably serving as Deputy Chief of General Staff, and commanding the prestigious Siachen-focussed 323 Infantry Brigade. Little is known about Gen. Wynne’s political affiliations, perhaps because he has none. Notably, Gen. Wynne has had no tenure at the ISI, unlike both his rivals for the top job — and, of course, Gen. Kayani himself.


Wars of succession in the Pakistan army have often had significant political outcomes. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif’s October 1999 appointment of Lieutenant-General Ziauddin Butt — an engineering officer — precipitated the coup which led to Gen. Musharraf taking charge as President. President and Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto picked the junior-most — and supposedly most subservient — candidate for the army chief’s job. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, who Bhutto described as “my monkey,” returned the compliment first by naming the Prime Minister Colonel-in-Chief of the Armoured Corps — and then sending him to the gallows. General Abdul Waheed Kakkar, appointed army chief by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan in the course of a bitter power struggle with Mr. Sharif, forced both politicians to resign.


Popular consensus has it that the Pakistan army is a battleground between Islamists and pro-western professionals. In fact, as scholars like Ayesha Siddiqa have shown us, the military is an independent political actor, representing a set of concrete interests: the military is, after all, Pakistan’s largest owner of land and custodian of an industrial empire that runs everything from breakfast-cereal plants to banks. The army, thus, is not just the custodian of the ideological and territorial boundaries of the state; it is, in key senses, the state itself.


Gen. Musharraf was reviled by the army for having allowed Pakistan to be drawn into a war that threatens its primacy. Gen. Kayani has responded by seeking to repair the army’s relationship with its long-standing Islamist allies —and by seeking to find a way out of the war in Pakistan’s northwest by escalating tensions along its eastern border. It is no coincidence that jihadist operations like the November 2008 attack on Mumbai took place soon after Gen. Kayani took office. His successor will have to decide if the army’s interests lie in this direction, or in charting a new course.


India has enormous equities in the looming struggle for control of the Pakistan army — and must watch its course with great care. The Hindu (One of Bharat’s most liberal newspapers). Pakistan Army: the struggle within Praveen Swami






Indian Army to test fire Nag missile in May

Last Updated:Mar 08, 2010


The Nag anti-tank missile developed by DRDO.

NEW DELHI (BNS): The Indian Army is gearing up to test fire the indigenously-built Nag anti-tank missile from Rajasthan in May.


The short-range missile, developed by Hyderabad-based Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL) under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme, will be inducted in the Army after completing the final round of test trials, sources said.



The Army has earmarked Rs 335 crore to buy 443 Nag missiles.


Nag is a third generation missile which operates on the “fire-and-forget” formula.


While the land version of the missile has a range of 4 to 6 km, its air version has a range of 7 to 8 km.


The 42-kg missile can fly at a speed of 230 meters per second.






India to give INR91.75bn for BSNL defence communications network

From Dow Jones Newswires

Monday 08 March 2010

New networks to free up bandwidth for civilian use.


The Indian government Monday said it has approved INR91.75 billion in financial assistance for state-run Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. to build an exclusive and dedicated communications network for the country's defense forces.


The package includes INR80.98 billion for a network for the army and navy, while INR10.77 billion will go to a network for the air force, junior Telecommunications Minister Gurudas Kamat said in response to questions in the lower house of Parliament.


The new networks, which are being built by BSNL on behalf of the Department of Telecommunications, will free up bandwidth for civilian use. Currently India's defense forces hold a majority of the country's radio bandwidth.


The government expects the bandwidth to be vacated by December 2012, Kamat said.







U.S. Sandwiched in Afghanistan Between India’s Cold Start Doctrine and Pakistani Defense With Water Fueling the Fire


Posted on 08 March 2010.


By Talha Mujaddidi

Axis of Logic


The list of universal truths should be expanded to include the fact of Afghanistan’s invincibility. Afghanistan has maintained its reputation as the ‘graveyard of the empires’. The question is, before the US invasion of Afghanistan, did the US Military command really think they can invade, occupy and control Afghanistan? The US indulgence in Afghanistan had nothing to do with Al-Qaeda or Taliban. It had everything to do with strategic control of Afghanistan and Pakistan, oil and gas rich Central Asia, and oil drenched Iran. The US control of Central Asia is the core of Zibignew Brzezinski’s doctrine on US hegemony in 21st century. The title of his book, ‘The Grand Chess Board’ is enough to know how Brzezinski views the world.


Nine years after 9/11 one of the major problems for the US is their ongoing struggle to control Afghanistan. Enter Pakistan. Pakistan is in no mood for allowing India gain more control in Afghanistan. The Pakistan Army has changed its stance on key security issues since departure of US crony, General/Dictator, Pervez Musharraf.


The recent surge operation against Taliban in Southern Afghanistan by US and NATO troops is nothing other than, as General Hamid Gul puts it, “a front loaded withdrawal” Gen Gul is the former head of Pakistani ISI.


“The Americans are defeated. It isn’t necessarily because their firepower and their might have weakened, but it is because their own people are sick and tired [of engagement in Afghanistan]. There is fatigue now, fatigue is the threat and is the worst thing for a nation to suffer from. There is no way that the Americans can hold on to Afghanistan”.


Pakistan army Chief Gen. Kayani 1 has made key changes to the national security policy of Pakistan. After the NATO summit, Gen. Kayani has made it clear to the US and its allies, that for the Pakistan army, India remains threat number one. This is after Indian Army Chief, Deepak Kapoor came out with a series of statements regarding Pakistan and even China. The first was his statement was that a nuclear war between India and Pakistan is possible. Then came another stunning and quietly laughable statement that, ‘India can simultaneously fight war with Pakistan and China’, (General Kapoor’s statements were made at a closed-door seminar at the Army Training Command, Shimla, India where he underlined the need to bolster India’s capability to wage a two-front war (against Pakistan and China).


Then came the Deepak Kapoor’s announcement of a “Cold Start Strategy” against Pakistan.


These positions taken by the Kapoor verified the worst suspicions of Pakistan military commanders – that India still views Pakistan as its foremost enemy and as it rides the US war machine for control of Afghanistan. Gen. Kayani has made it absolutely clear to the US that India considers Pakistan its number one enemy and therefore, the Pakistan military takes threats from Indian Army Chief very seriously. This is all in the backdrop of India occupying Kashmir since 1947, and more recently stopping Pakistan’s water supply which has led to water shortages in Pakistan, which is heavily dependent on its agriculture-based economy. Therefore, Pakistan will not tolerate India making further inroads into Afghanistan, thus ramping up the threat to our country. Recently, Gen. Kayani talked to Pakistani and foreign media for the first time in detail. Some excerpts from the conversation are worth pondering. (“Pindi Manifesto”, Outlook magazine, by Mariana Babar)


“Kayani proudly talked about the successful army operations in Swat, Malakand and South Waziristan. The myth had been broken, he said, that no army could take control of South Waziristan and hold it. Heliborne operations at 8,000 feet in South Waziristan were the largest ever in South Asia, he declared, and for which the US didn’t pay a cent”.


When the conversation turned to India, Gen Kayani’s addressed strategic issues. The following conclusions can easily be drawn from his words:


* Pakistan won’t countenance a significant role for India in Afghanistan;

* New Delhi’s recent military pronouncements worry Islamabad immensely;

* The gains from backchannel diplomacy, launched during Pervez Musharraf’s 2 rule, need not necessarily be the starting point for Islamabad now; and Kashmir remains Pakistan’s principal focus.


Gen. Musharraf’s U-turn on Pakistan’s Kashmir policy was deeply resented by people of Pakistan. Gen. Kayani is now steering the Kashmir policy back to the pre-Musharraf track. The Pakistan Army has told the government that back channel diplomacy between India and Pakistan amounts to nothing more than pages of history when Gen. Musharraf gave elaborate concessions to Indians.


Kayani’s Response to India’s “Cold Start Doctrine”


Gen. Kayani intoned emphatically, “Yes, we are India-centric.” He then went on to spell out his reasons, taking quite seriously Indian army chief Deepak Kapoor’s cold start doctrine articulated in December 2009. General Kayani said,


“We have unresolved issues, a history of conflict and now the cold start doctrine. Help us resolve these issues so that we can shift our attention from the eastern borders to the west. Let us normalize these burning issues. We want peaceful coexistence with India. After all, India has the capability, and good intentions can change overnight.”


General Kayani also opposed the idea of India training the Afghan National Army.


“Strategically, we cannot have an Afghan army on my western border which has an Indian mindset. If we have an army trained by Pakistan, there will be better interactions on the western border.


“Our objective is that at the end of all this (Afghanistan), we should not be standing in the wrong corner of the room and should remain relevant in the region. This is our greatest challenge.”


Thinking beyond the US/NATO Occupation


Gen. Kayani’s recent stance has gained popular support from people of Pakistan; this also highlights the importance of the Pakistan Military high command’s observation of situation in Afghanistan. The Pakistan Military is now thinking of life in Afghanistan beyond the US/NATO occupation. Pakistan army does not want to have Indian Army floating around inside Afghanistan. Pakistan will also not want to damage its ties with Afghan Taliban.


Recently half a dozen high ranking Afghan Taliban members including Mullah Baradar were arrested by Pakistani intelligence in different Pakistani cities. This has confused some people and commentators are suggesting that Pakistan Army is no longer making a distinction between Pakistani Taliban and Afghan Taliban. Erik Randolph of Guardian Newspaper had this to say in his article, “Pakistan is winning its risky games”.


“There are a tonnes of theories as to what motivated Pakistan’s shadowy ISI to suddenly co-operate in handing over an old ally. Were they making sure he did not make a deal behind their back? Were they buying some influence with the United States? Or was it a stern warning to the Afghan Taliban to stay in line?”


Any of these theories could be correct. The bottom line is that Pakistan military command is making plans to counter Indian threats in the region and ensuring that when the U.S. puppet regime under Karzai fails in Kabul, the next government will remain Pakistan friendly. Setting limits on Afghan-Taliban operations inside Pakistan clarifies national boundaries, robs the Obama regime of their pretext for war on Pakistan and leaves Pakistan in a stronger negotiating position with Afghan Taliban when the U.S., Israel and India have finally withdrawn from the the country.


The Complications of Pakistan Politics


At the political level, Pakistan is a complicated but there is no question about its strength and future, contrary to frequent Western media reports that attempt to portray the country as a failing state.


In his recent article, Are Pakistan’s Strategic Nuclear Assets Threatened by Terrorists, Shahid Siddiqi wrote for Axis of Logic:


“Despite bad governance during 62 years of its life, the viability of this nation of 170 million has never been in doubt, even under the worst of circumstances. On the contrary it shows promise. It has a strong agricultural base and is self sufficient in food. It has an aggressive entrepreneurial class, a vibrant industry and efficient workforce. Its roller coaster economic performance notwithstanding, its growth rate until recently stood at an impressive 7.5%, behind China and India, when the world economy was in doldrums. Pakistanis are fiercely nationalistic and loyal to their country and have always rallied behind their nuclear-armed million strong defence forces in times of crisis, which are counted among the best in the world. If these factors do not make a nation viable, what does? There has never been nor is there today any danger of Pakistan’s collapse or of the country falling to the terrorists.”


Zardari is now under threat by the skeletons of corruption in his closet. Just as Uribe has become a liability to the U.S. in Colombia due to his dirty history, Zardari is will eventually lose his usefulness to the U.S. in Pakistan. His money laundering cases will now have to be re-opened after Pakistani Supreme Court has started to flex some muscles on key judicial procedures. This includes the National Accountability Bureau opening up Zardari’s corruption cases. This government which was setup so eloquently by US and UK is now heading for the gutter. Zardari will likely either have to resign and will probably be forced follow Musharraf into exile. This could mean more political chaos or mid-term elections, none of which is what people of Pakistan really want.


Zardari he is unable to control things the way he intended. On Febuary 22, the Pakistan Army Spokesmen declared that the Pakistan Army does not need government permission to grant extensions to its serving generals. Gen. Kayani has already extended the service of two senior generals to an additional year beyond their scheduled retirements. It is likely that Gen. Pasha, the head of ISI will get a one year extension. Gen. Kayani’s term of service, will be extended at least one year beyond his scheduled retirement in October.


The US is obviously unconcerned about the people of Pakistan or even the structure of politics in Pakistan. The US is realizing that political setup in Pakistan is too complex and difficult to manage and that Pakistan is no Yugoslavia. Hence, once again the entire US administration is dealing with Pakistan Army Headquarter (GHQ), just like they have for the most of history.


No End in Sight for the Indo-Pakistan Conflict


The relations between India and Pakistan are likely to worsen in the near future. The root cause of this is the Kashmir conflict but this fire is now being fueled by water. Water will be the root of conflict between India and Pakistan in near future. India has built dams on the Indus River flowing from Kashmir which is a violation of Indus River water treaty of 1962 between Pakistan and India. This is something that the US has also realized but it is unable to twist India’s arm into solving water and Kashmir issues with Pakistan. The recently concluded dialogue between India and Pakistan brought about absolutely no result whatsoever. India is simply not willing to even discuss the core thorny issues between itself and Pakistan. This posture is consistent with their confrontational policies toward all their neighbors – pages taken out of the CIA handbook – accepting nothing less than full regional dominance.


Any acute conflict between India and Pakistan will result in complete chaos for U.S./NATO troops in Afghanistan. In addition, a sudden ignition could be disastrous for both, Pakistan and India. These risks are rooted in the open hostility and hatred towards Pakistan by the Indian government which of course overflows into the attitudes of the populace. India’s penchant for conflict and dominance can be seen in its conflicts with every country in South Asia, from Pakistan to Sri Lanka to Nepal to the island of Maldives.


The US grand-strategic agenda lies sandwiched between Pakistan and India. India’s desire to gain control of Pakistan will also be compromised by the new Naxalite insurgency in India’s eastern states. This insurgency has exploded, requiring India to move at least 30,000 troops from Kashmir into the eastern states. Meanwhile, Pakistan will continue to provide covert support to various commanders inside Afghanistan in an effort to forstall Indian hegemony. The US must find a compromise in Afghanistan in search of an escape route. Mullah Omer does not want to talk to US or NATO at all. Some of his commanders (moderate Taliban) wanted to talk to the US but sadly for them and the U.S., they are now in Pakistan Army custody.


Glossary of Terms and Names


1. General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani is a Pakistani general and the current Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. Kayani replaced Pervez Musharraf as the leader of the army on November 29, 2007. Kayani is the former director of Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), and Director General of Military Operations.

2. Pervez Musharraf is former dictator-turned- president of Pakistan. He was forced out of office due to the assassination of Benazir Bhutto and his loss of support by his former sponsor, the U.S. government.

3. National Reconciliation Ordinance (NRO) is the brainchild of Condi Rice, Richard Boucher, and John Negroponte. The NRO brought into power the current Pakistan government under President Zardari. One of the key functions of the NRO was to “baptize” all the corrupt politicians of the past, erasing their crimes and misdeeds.

4. Chief Justice Iftikhar Choudary, was the CJ of Supreme Court of

Pakistan, he was appointed by Musharraf, he stopped vital corrupt privatization deals, and recovered more than seventy missing persons who were in CIA/Pakistani intelligence prisons in Pakistan. Choudary was removed from office by Musharraf in March 2007. Some 60 Supreme Court and High Court judges, including Choudary were sacked in November 2007 when then-President Pervez Musharraf declared a state of emergency.

5. Asif Ali Zardari is the current president of Pakistan. He is the former husband of Benazir Bhutto and came into power on her coat tails after she was assassinated. He is also the son of veteran politician Mr. Hakim Ali Zardari. Mr. Zardari is commonly known in Pakistan as “Mr. Ten Percent” due to his well-known personal cuts from various government deals.

6. ISI- Inter Services Intelligence is Pakistan’s top spy agency. Very close ally of CIA. ISI also knows some intimate secrets of Afghan Jihad against the Soviets, which was partnered by CIA and the Reagan administration. Recently, ISI has been told not to interfere in domestic politics by Gen. Kayani.






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