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Tuesday, 21 September 2010

From Today's Papers - 21 Sep 2010

Security concerns in Delhi Early alarm may help plug loopholes 
The ease with which two motorcycle riders on Sunday opened fire outside Delhi’s Jama Masjid and made good their escape would no doubt add to the worry of the organisers of the Commonwealth Games. The incident exposed the weak links in the security blanket put in place and raised question marks over the supposedly fool-proof arrangements made in the national capital ahead of the Games. Indeed, had a poor rickshaw- puller not mustered enough courage to hurl a brick at the two miscreants, thus forcing them to scoot, the shooting would have left a much worse trail of blood. What is even more worrying is that the riders should target a tourist bus within shouting distance of a police station. Paradoxically, the Delhi Police has been gearing up over the past several months to cope with precisely this kind of an eventuality. But when desperate elements did choose to strike, the police actually failed the test. Their failure to stop the culprits from escaping from a crowded area is bound to raise questions about their preparedness. It is of no consolation that a police constable tried to run after the motorcycle riders. That neither the policeman nor anyone in the crowd was able to correctly note down the registration number of the two-wheeler, which might well have been fake though, indicates poor reaction, coordination and even poorer support from citizens.  Security personnel are undoubtedly doing a thankless job. But Sunday’s incident does underscore how vulnerable we still are to terror strikes. The Delhi Police has been exuding confidence in dealing with threats to the Commonwealth Games. Police spokesmen have also been quick to boast of the four-layered security, electronic surveillance, aerial reconnaissance, real-time communication, quick-reaction teams, patrolling by plainclothesmen, snipers, commandos, etc, that, they were certain, would help keep Delhi secure. People have repeatedly been reassured that unprecedented use of technology would keep miscreants at bay. But on Sunday it took just two motorcycle riders and arguably less than two minutes to call the bluff.  There is, clearly, no room for complacency. Threats to the Games are real and one must presume that terror groups would try their utmost to strike. The only effective deterrent is the ability of the security establishment to plug escape routes and catch the culprits. Sunday was an early alarm that tested the security for the Games. It would hopefully act as a catalyst for a higher degree of caution.

ISI behind stone-throwing Time to change Kashmir strategy
by K. Subrahmanyam  Day after day Srinagar and many other towns in the Kashmir valley are placed under curfew. Groups of people defy curfew orders and indulge in stone-throwing, making sure to escalate it to a level to leave the Kashmir police with no alternative but to open fire after trying out teargas shells.  Inevitably, this results in a few deaths and some people getting injured. They understandably attract enormous attention in the national electronic and print media. Media people wax eloquent, to a great extent justifiably, on the sufferings of the common man, being denied access to hospitals, educational institutions, shopping facilities, etc. An impression is created that the government and the local police are responsible for people being subjected to such enormous hardship for weeks on end.  Opposition leader Mehbooba Mufti has called Omar Abdullah as “the most repressive” Chief Minister in the country. An eminent columnist and TV personality has raised a very justifiable question why National Conference legislators or, for that matter, separatists do not seem to have any control over the streets. What has not received adequate attention in the print and electronic media is that more than 1600 policemen, including senior police officers, have been wounded in the last three months. There are no estimates of the loss to the exchequer in terms of public property destroyed.  There appears to be a widespread assumption among various political leaders and most sections of our media that these sustained stone-throwing campaigns constitute outbursts of frustration and anger among the jobless youth of Kashmir. That assumption leads to the conclusion that there has been a governance deficit specific to Kashmir. The logical conclusion of this line of reasoning is to have an all-party delegation to go to Kashmir and ascertain the grievances of the youth. At the same time, separatists have made it crystal clear that the agitation is related to the demand for “azadi”. This situation calls for some sustained thinking instead of platitudinising. Unfortunately, that process does not seem to be evident either in the government or the media.  Let us assume that the curfew is lifted and the security forces are ordered to stay in their barracks. Will stone-throwing and public property destruction stop? No. The intensity of stone-throwing and the large number of policemen getting wounded, not adequately reported in our media, lead to the conclusion that stone-throwing is not an impulsive act but a planned one to compel the security forces to open fire and cause casualties.  If governance deficit brings young men in Kashmir to throw stones at the police, then in most states where governance is equally poor, young men should be throwing stones day after day. Thanks to the permissiveness of many of our politicians, we have enough stone-throwing in many parts of India but not the sustained stone-throwing of the Kashmir variety, which brings normal life to a halt for weeks. There is only one explanation why this happens in Kashmir and not in other states, where also there are angry and frustrated young men. The Kashmir campaign is being organised and directed by terrorist elements from outside.  A well-informed article in The Hindu brought out that when one person opened his shop ahead of the time prescribed by the separatists, he was beaten up and his shop was vandalised. That may be the valid explanation why legislators and other non-separatist leaders are inactive. That may even explain why people complain that the performance of the Kashmir police is below par and why they always ask the CRPF to open fire. Their families are hostages to terror. Sitting in Delhi and not having been to the spot for years, I have no tangible evidence to offer, but as a person with a background in intelligence analysis I cannot find an alternative explanation to the happenings in Kashmir  Surely, the stone-throwers know full well that their action will not remove their frustration, get them jobs or “azadi”. What they are aiming at is to escalate the situation when the Army will get involved, and they can go to town on the Indian Army’s atrocities, invoke Amnesty International, the UN Human Rights Commission and the UN General Assembly. It is timed to coincide with President Obama’s visit. For Pakistan’s ISI, the Kashmiri population is just cannon fodder and their normal modus operandi is to use suicide bombers to cause indiscriminate casualties of children, young men and women. That will explain why there are young men and children in the stone-pelting crowds. The ISI needs such casualties.  This is no Palestinian “intifada”, as some people make inapt comparisons. Palestinians do not destroy Palestinian property and prevent Palestinian children from getting milk or going to school. Palestinians do not throw stones at the Palestinian police.  How is this regime of terror operated? All it requires is some 39-40 trained dedicated jihadi terrorists introduced in each town as sleeper cells over the years with enough resources at their disposal. They get embedded in stone-throwing crowds and direct and manipulate their operations. They are in a position to use the separatists who are in a small minority but in sufficient numbers to provide such jihadis logistic and other backing. Their aim is not to get “azadi” or jobs for youngmen but to create chaos in the valley and rebut the Indian claim that constitutional democracy prevails in Kashmir under a government elected in a free and fair poll. Unfortunately, parochial politics in Kashmir becomes exploitable for those who want to denigrate constitutional democracy in Jammu and Kashmir  The strategy to deal with terrorism, imposed on Kashmir through a sizeable number of jihadis introduced as sleepers with the collaboration of local separatists and operating in an embedded manner among the stone-throwers, has to be different from the present one which depends on the Kashmir police out-enduring the jihadis, a kind of battle of attrition. This is a reactive strategy. What is called for is a proactive one which will identify the jihadi elements embedded in the stone-throwing crowds and neutralise them.  It is a pity that the responsibility for the sufferings of the Kashmiri people is not attributed to those who in reality inflict this enormous hardship — the stone-throwing embedded jihadis. Misperception about the entire phenomenon as a spontaneous expression of anger by youngsters has diverted attention from the underlying reality and the consequent appropriate strategy to deal with it. It is high time a thoroughly professional assessment was carried out to enable the formulation of an effective strategy.

India third most powerful nation: US report
  Press Trust of India, Updated: September 21, 2010 00:04 IST Washington:  The new global power lineup in the US for 2010 compiling the world's most powerful countries/regions recognised India as the third most powerful country behind the US and China, and predicted that its clout as well as that of China and Brazil would further rise by 2025.  "Global Governance 2025" - follow-on to the NIC's 2008 report - was jointly issued by the National Intelligence Council (NIC) of the powerful Office of the Director of National Intelligence and the European Union's Institute for Security Studies (EUISS).  In 2010, the US tops the list of powerful countries/regions, accounting for nearly 22 per cent of the global power.  The US is followed by China (more than 12 per cent), European Union (more than 16 per cent), India (nearly eight per cent), and less than five per cent each for Japan, Russia and Brazil According to this international futures model, by 2025 the power of the US, EU, Japan and Russia would decline while that of China, India and Brazil would increase, even though there would be no change in this listing.  By 2025, the United States would still be the most powerful country of the world, but it would have a little over 18 per cent of the global power.  The US would be closely followed by China (nearly 16 per cent), European Union (14 per cent) and India (10 per cent).  The report concludes that three effects of rapid globalisation are driving demands for more effective global governance - economic interdependence, the interconnected nature of the challenges on the international agenda, and interwoven domestic and foreign challenges.  According to the 82-page report, more effective global governance is critical to addressing "threats such as ethnic conflicts, infectious diseases, and terrorism as well as a new generation of global challenges including climate change, energy security, food and water scarcity, international migration flows and new technologies," which are increasingly taking centrestage.  Complicating the prospects for effective global governance over the next 15 years, however, is the shift to a multi polar world, particularly the shift in power towards non-state actors, it says.

Next US-Pak strategic dialogue to take place in Oct
September 21, 2010 03:43 IST Tags: USAID, Richard Holbrooke, Special US Representative for Pakistan, Raj Shah, Washington Share this Ask Users Write a Comment  The third round of US-Pakistan Strategic Dialogue will be held in Washington on October 22, special Af-Pak envoy Richard Holbrooke [ Images ] said on Monday as he lauded international efforts, especially by India [ Images ], in providing support to Pakistan flood victims.  "Pakistan is the only country in the world in which Secretary of State (Hillary) Clinton will have chaired three strategic dialogues in six months: in March in Washington, July co-chaired in Islamabad [ Images ], and next month in Washington again," Holbrooke, Special US Representative for Pakistan and Afghanistan, told reporters during a teleconference with the USAID Administrator Raj Shah.  Holbrooke asserted that Pakistan is getting highest level of attention from Washington after Afghanistan. "So the amount of attention Pakistan's getting from the highest levels of the US government is unmatched by any other country in the world, with the obvious exception of Afghanistan."  Holbrooke, who returned from Pakistan after assessing the severity of devastating floods there, and expressed his satisfaction the response from the international community, especially India. "I would draw your attention to the fact that India has given US $ 25 million to the effort through the United Nations," he said, adding that "US $ 500,000 has already been raised by Pakistan Relief Fund, the one Secretary (of State, Hillary) Clinton called for."  He also lauded "a great deal" of efforts by Pakistani-American diaspora and multinational consumer products firm Proctor and Gamble in providing aid to the flood victims. "The Chinese have made a very strong commitment, in public," he added.  Meanwhile, the envoy said the priorities for US aid to Pakistan under the Kerry Lugar Bill will be examined in conjunction with the Pakistani government."As we emerge from the early recovery phase, how can we tell what Pakistan's priorities are now, when one-fifth of the country is still underwater or just beginning to emerge from the floods? This is a very, very difficult issue...I remind you again of how difficult it was for us in a much smaller area, in New Orleans five years ago, and how, on the fifth anniversary a few weeks ago, people were reporting about, still, things in -- not complete."  The US has so far contributed US $ 345 million for the flood relief efforts. "It is quite clear going forward that agriculture will be one of the major priorities," USAID chief Shah said. "More than a quarter of total crop land and nearly a third of the productive capacity of Pakistan's agriculture has been severely affected."  In many cases crops, livestock, feedstock and land are completely washed out, he said.  "So the Pakistani government, working with the Food and Agriculture Organisation, the US and a number of others, are putting in place significant efforts to support an early recovery strategy in agriculture, including widespread distribution of seed and other farm implements, and helping farmers, as they go back to their lands, to have a successful planting season," Shah added.

Kashmiri Pandits meet Mukherjee, oppose AFSPA dilution
September 20, 2010 17:17 IST Tags: Armed Forces Special Powers Act, Ramesh Manvati, Pranab Mukherjee, Panun Kashmir, Kashmiri Pandits Share this Ask Users Write a Comment  Click! Kashmiri Pandits have impressed upon the central government that there should be no dilution of the Armed Forces Special Powers Act and nothing should be done to weaken the state's integration with the country.  A group of Kashmir [ Images ]i Pandits met Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee [ Images ] in Delhi [ Images ] on Sunday night and apprised him of their views on the current volatile situation in the state. The delegation of Pandits, led by Panun Kashmir leader Ramesh Manvati, emphasised that the Centre should not accept demands for dilution or withdrawal of the AFSPA from the state as it ensures crucial legal protection to the security forces.  "The security forces must be provided the constitutional protection as they are playing a crucial role in preservation of the country's sovereignty," Manvati said. He said the delegation also underlined that nothing should be done to weaken the state's integration with the country and no demand that could amount to secession should be accepted.  Mukherjee shared the concerns of the Pandit delegation and assured that the country's sovereignty would be protected at all costs, Manvati said.  The delegation, which also included L N Dhar and H L Jad, demanded reorganisation of the state, setting up of a commission to go into the causes of militancy and ouster of four lakh Pandits from the valley 20 years ago. It also sought modification in the employment package under which 1,000 Pandits would get jobs in Kashmir valley.  The Pandits said the jobs should be provided in Jammu as the situation was not yet conducive for them to go to Kashmir. The Pandit delegation complained that the suggestions given by them at the prime minister's roundtable conferences had been completely ignored.

“Soon enough the entire mechanised fleet is going to be capable of fighting at night and reacting at short notice,”
Col A K Sharma, Former Armour Battalion Commander, Indian Army September 20, 2010 defencesummits   Leave a comment Go to comments  The growing capability requirements of the Indian mechanised force have leant themselves towards a healthy marketplace for the Indian Armoured Vehicles community ( With hardware, in the past, procured traditionally from Russia and the Eastern Bloc and training methods from the UK, the market has proven itself to be anything but a closed shop. In a recent interview with Defence IQ Colonel A K Sharma, Former Armour Battalion Commander and Dean of the Indian Army’s Faculty of Technical Studies (and current Editor of the South Asia Defence & Strategic Review), expanded on this theme to give an overview of the current Indian marketplace and its future directions.  With “technical and tactical training from the UK set to make its mark in the training of Indian mechanised forces,” as Col. Sharma explained, and further computer-based training on the way, the crux of the capability enhancement focus now lies, in Col. Sharma’s opinion, on where future hardware plans for the mechanised force will direct Indian Army spending. The capability enhancement focus centres upon four key areas:   - Increased Mobility and the viability of engine upgrades as quick-win solution - Increased Survivability - Night-fighting Capability - Battlefield Management Systems  While Sharma is confident that “soon enough the entire mechanised fleet is going to be capable of fighting at night”, he is also honest in admitting that a fully capable battlefield management system – effective in both logistics and processing terrain data – has long been talked about without being delivered. The tide has turned though India’s mechanised force now seems to be making genuine forward steps towards being “capable of reacting at short notice.  Despite the overall confidence in capability enhancement, Sharma did offer a few words of warning on the challenges that lay ahead – most notably, the timelines and technology issues which often plague the procurement process for many military forces looking to develop equipment and capability. According to Sharma, in the past, India has struggled to overcome an inability to produce satisfactory prototypes to the extent that once built, those prototypes have since already become outdated and the process, far too costly. Coupled with this, is the traditional lack of the core technologies which are central to the build of all major hardware ranging from tanks to aircraft. This lack of core technology and the resultant slow build of suitable prototypes have further delayed an already costly procurement process. Sharma’s outlook though for the Indian Army is bright and that is in no small part down to the Indian Government’s recent initiative on the System of Offsets so as Sharma explains, the Indian Army “gets what we really need” and “gets what we really don’t’ have at the moment.”  In all of this, Sharma is adamant that “transparency” and “fairness” are key to avoid the stereotypically lengthy and complicated procurement process that the Indian Forces have come to expect. The outlook though has become considerably brighter.  To listen to Col Sharma’s podcast interview in full, visit the complimentary Armoured Vehicles India Download Centre at Col Sharma will also be leading “The Indian Armed Forces Modernization Debate” with Dr. Thomas Mathew (Deputy Director General, Institute for Defence Studies & Analyses IDSA), Brigadier (Ret’d) Gurmeet Kanwal (Director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies, CLAWS) and Lieutenant General A.K.S.Chandele (Director, Corps of Electrical & Mechanical Engineering, Indian Army) at the Armoured Vehicles India forum on 22nd – 24th November 2010. At the same event, Col Sharma will also be briefing the Indian Armoured vehicles community on his “Analysis of the Indian Army’s Past, Current and Future Armoured Vehicle Procurement Programmes.” The full agenda can be viewed at

Eurojet May Edge Out GE Aviation in HAL Tejas Fighter Jet Engine Deal

GE Aviation and Eurojet have reportedly placed bids for the HAL Tejas Fight Jet Engine deal. Eurojet bid USD 666 million for 99 EJ200 engines, against US rival General Electric, which quoted USD 822 million for GE F-414 engines.  Business Standard quotes, "Europe has an edge over the US in the tightly-fought contest to sell India a next-generation engine for the homegrown Tejas light combat aircraft (LCA)."  Both engines are technically suitable to power the Tejas Mark-II therefore the ministry of defence's procurement procedure states that the vendor offering the lower price is to be handed the contract. The engine-makers have been asked for certain clarifications by Wednesday, and senior Eurojet executives are worried that Washington could pressure New Delhi to opt for the US engine.  This deal has high stakes as it will be closely linked to the USD 11 billion Indian Air Force Medium Multi-role Combat Aircraft deal, say industry experts. The contenders the Eurofighter has twin EJ-200 engines, while GE F-414 engines power the US-built F/A-18 and Swedish Gripen NG fighters.  Says Air Vice Marshall (Retd) Kapil Kak of the Centre for Air Power Studies, the IAF’s official think tank, “It is as clear as daylight. Selecting the EJ200 for the Tejas would boost the Eurofighter’s prospects in the MMRCA contest. ... Its engines, which form about 15-20 per cent of the cost of a modern fighter, would be already manufactured in India for the Tejas. For the same reason, rejecting the GE F-414 would diminish the chances of the two fighters that fly with that engine,” he added.  In its tender for the Tejas engine, the defence ministry has specified that only ten engines could be built abroad. All subsequent engines must be built in India, with the vendor transferring technology for their manufacture. If the EJ200 were built in India for the Tejas, Eurofighter would benefit from a fully amortized engine line and also be entitled to offset credits for the ‘made-in-India’ Eurofighter EJ200 engines. This would lower the price of the Eurofighter — a huge advantage for an aircraft regarded as high performance, but expensive. Logistically, too, the IAF would prefer an MMRCA with engines that were already in its inventory.  Selection of the GE F-414 engine, on the other hand, would provide all these advantages to the vendors of the F/A-18 and the Gripen NG fighters. This is a key reason why Eurojet and GE have conducted their Tejas engine campaign so competitively.  Furthermore, the order for 99 engines for the Tejas Mark-II is just a foot in the door to the Indian market. Given that each fighter goes through two to three engines during its operational lifetime, the four to five planned squadrons (84-105 fighters) of the Tejas Mark-II would actually need 200-300 new engines. The 126 MMRCAs could use several hundred more.  European aerospace industry plans to enhance its presence in India's military programmes through Eurofighter and the MMRCA contest. The first move by EADS was to provide consultancy to accelerate flight-testing of the Tejas; now comes the second move: bidding aggressively to win the Tejas engine contract.  Defence ministry sources have expressed surprise that Eurojet bid 20 per cent cheaper than rival General Electric, which is widely regarded as a cost-effective manufacturer. In fact, conversations with EADS executives reveal that this is a well-considered business strategy.  Sources in the Aeronautical Development Agency confirm that both GE and Eurojet engines fully met the technical requirements to power the Tejas Mark-II. The EJ200 - which IAF favours - is the more modern, lighter and flexible engine with greater potential for growth. The GE F-414 is heavier, but provides a little more power.  Eurojet is a consortium between Avio (Italy), ITP (Spain), MTU Aero Engines (Germany) and Rolls-Royce (UK), which was set up to develop the EJ200 engine for the Eurofighter. It is headquartered in Hallbergmoos, Germany.

India’s Navy is transforming to become a C4ISR nuclear force in the Indian Ocean
By Cmde (retd) Ranjit B. Rai | September 20th, 2010  “Satellite Communications is at the heart of Indian Navy’s vision of future net centric operations in our area of interest…..From the operational perspective, satellite communications network ushers in transformational changes ……and allows for real time information exchange in voice, video data etc which is quite unreliable in HF Communications systems”. (2010). Admiral Nirmal Verma Chief of Naval Staff Indian Navy a Communications Specialist and Graduate of the Royal Naval Staff College UK and US Naval War College Rhode Island.  PREAMBLE  India’s meager investments in space and nuclear programmes soon after Independence in 1947 were initiated by pioneering Cambridge educated scientists, Drs Homi Bhaba and Vikram Sarabhai under Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru who was himself educated in UK at Harrow and Cambridge. India’s space and nuclear programmes were civilian led, but incorporated military objectives, which were never articulated. Homi Bhabha forged friendships with the likes of Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli, and Enrico Fermi and is credited to be the father of India’s nuclear programme. The charge of ministries of space and nuclear, were always held by Prime Ministers and generously funded from the powerful PM’s office (PMO). A unique method of funding, working and auditing, was employed where no one entity was aware of the whole picture. This allowed Indian scientists the liberty to pursue variegated programmes without interference and enabled Indian leaders to feign ‘Plausible Denial’, about India’s nuclear bomb preparations, a term made coinage by President Ronald Regan, during the Iran-Contra scandal. In 1974 Mrs Indira Gandhi made sure India’s nuclear explosion at Pokhran was dubbed a ‘peaceful nuclear explosion(PNE)’.  As a senior scientist put the system in perspective, “while all Government organizations in India have worked in a bureaucratic top down system from New Delhi, India’s space research organization (ISRO) and Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) headquartered at Bangalore and Bombay respectively, remained away from the capital, and worked on a freewheeling bottom up approach. This is why we produced the nuclear bomb in secrecy, and India’s space, nuclear power and nuclear medical programmes, can now hold their own with leading nations of the world. India is now forging ahead in both spheres, thanks also, to the recent US-India nuclear deal sponsored by President Bush which allows India to reprocess USA’s spent fuel, and the NSG clearances and lifting of sanctions”.  Today civil space applications are benefitting India, in spatial Geographic Information Systems-GIS, as GIS integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. The cycle allows decision makers and Indian military commanders to pictorially view, plan, interpret, and visualize data in ways that reveal intelligence like never before. GIS technology is being integrated into the Indian military framework, and a land based secure digital and fibre optic and space based Defence Communication Network (DCN) is being set up, for the Armed Forces and India’s national security needs. India’s Telecom ministry has also accepted the armed forces demand that one slot of pan-India wireless broadband airwaves be reserved for it, and private mobile operator Reliance has offered WIMAX service when operational, which will assist the military to connect to the last mile in the mountains and forests. Advances in space are also noteworthy.  INDIAN SPACE APPLICATIONS FOR MILITARY AND NAVAL USES  ISRO was pioneered under a dynamic head Dr Vikram Sarabhai who passed away young, but was followed later by Caltech educated Dr Satish Dhawan in 1972 who served in ISRO and held charge and made sure that India’s space programmes were never overtly associated in any way with India’s military. This was a master stroke. Dhawan’s contacts in USA and abroad came in handy for imports, and his dedication to space made him even decline an invitation by PM Mrs Gandhi to become the Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Defence(MOD), and move to New Delhi from Bangalore.  The autonomous civilian working method allowed ISRO to receive foreign aid and experimental rockets for launches from abroad, and its scientists were freely invited to conferences and training programmes. ISRO was able to import components except during periods of sanction when France and Russia made exceptions, and ISRO made rapid strides in the space segment for India’s civil applications, and was able to partner with foreign space agencies and launch satellites. ISRO has also launched a satellite in space and recovered a module back, and landed a probe on the moon called Chandrayaan, depicting anti satellite capability in theory. ISRO has plans to place two astronauts to circle the earth in space by 2013.  India’s advances since 1980 in space technology with satellites manufactured and launched by ISRO has made it the eighth nation in the world to demonstrate it could send satellites in to orbit for remote sensing in low earth orbit (LEO), and high earth orbit for geo stationary (HEO) communication satellites in the INSAT/GSAT series. India has become fairly self sufficient, and now possesses capabilities for its Armed Forces to move ahead into the world of GIS, space reconnaissance and digital communications technology for net centricity, a place previously occupied only by more-developed nations.  There are 10 active Indian remote sensing satellites in operation – IRS-1C, IRS-1D, IRS-P3, Oceansat-1/2, Resourcesat-1, CARTOSAT 1/2 and the Technology Experiment Satellite (TES). Another 680 kg Cartosat 2B costing $ 40 mill was successfully launched by a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV C-15)on 12th July, 2010. They are all placed in 650 to 820km polar sun-synchronous orbits, carrying multiple cameras, which include Panchromatic Camera (PAN), Linear Imaging Self Scanner (LISS-III) and Wide Field Sensor (WiFS). The satellites are intended for advanced mapping and intelligence applications. Cartosat-2B has a spatial resolution of 2m and a swath of 30 km per camera. The cameras are mounted with a tilt of +26 deg and _5 deg along track with respect to nadir to provide stereo pairs of images for generation of Digital Terrain Models (DTM)/Digital Elevation Models (DEM) with a revisit capability of 5 days, which can be realized by steering the spacecraft about its roll axis by +26 degrees.  Some of the military technologies were demonstrated in TES with military funding. These included attitude and orbit control system, high torque reaction wheels, new reaction control system with optimized thrusters and a single propellant tank, light weight spacecraft structure, solid state recorder, X-band phased array antenna, improved satellite positioning system, miniaturized TTC and power system and two-mirror-on-axis camera optics. TES also carries a panchromatic camera with a spatial resolution of 1m, and an experimental radar . The Svalbard and Tromso stations of Kongsberg, Norway have been added to the ISRO network to support data reception requirements of IRS missions.  On 23rd September, 2009 ISRO in a land mark event launched an ocean-monitoring satellite OCEANSAT 2 and six European nano satellites aboard a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) that lifted off from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre on India’s Southeastern coast. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, in a statement, congratulated the (ISRO) on the successful launch of Oceansat-2, which he said “will herald a new beginning in our understanding of the oceans.” Oceansat-2 was placed into its intended 720-kilometer sun synchronous polar orbit, dedicated to data collection that began with Oceansat-1, which was launched in 1999 and is nearing the end of its operational life. A third satellite, Oceansat-3, is planned for launch in 2012. Oceansat-2 is being used for weather tracking and forecasting and the identification of potential fishing zones, ocean condition forecasting, coastal zone studies and providing inputs for weather forecasting and climate studies. The Indian Navy has access to the data for bathymetric studies, to assist Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) among other military uses.  Oceansat-2 for ocean surveillance carries an Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and an 8-band multi-spectral camera operating in the Visible Near IR spectral range and a Ku-band Pencil Beam Scatterometer. This camera provides an instantaneous geometric field of view of 360 m covering a swath of 1,420 km. The Scatterometer is a microwave radar for measuring the ocean surface wind velocity. It operates at 13.515 GHz providing a around resolution of 50 m.  The Armed Forces intelligence agencies, and the tri service Defence Image Processing and Analysis Centre (DIPAC) in New Delhi’s cantonment which has a satellite receiving centre at Gwalior, supports the Armed Forces by analyzing satellite data by employing systems purchased from world’s leading suppliers like Intergraph USA and Erdas and others. The remote sensing LEO satellites are tiltable, can change their area of coverage and have resolutions from 25 meters to 1 metre but are blind in cloud cover or at night, and have a limited ability to detect targets at sea. On 20th April 2009 ISRO launched RISAT-2 , India’s first satellite with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) built by IAI of Israel. Incidentally, it was hurriedly launched post the Mumbai attack of 26/11, while RISAT-1 is being readied by ISRO. This has also proved the ability of ISRO to launch spy satellites at short notice in the future.  The RISAT-2 has panchromatic cameras and radar capability similar to Israel’s TECSAR for imagery at sea and along the coast. RISAT-2 can penetrate cloud and is a mile stone achievement. It was indicated at an International Geo-Intelligence conference held in Delhi in May 2010 that the ISRO and National Technical Reporting Organisation (NTRO) an intelligence agency modeled after USA’s National Space Agency(NSA) in New Delhi, can control the satellite in coordination with the Armed Forces tasking and specially caters to the Navy’s requests. Adequate commercial data banks of ships and computer systems are now available commercially to finger print ships at sea and in harbours. With space data now readily available 24×7, a repeat of the intelligence failure like the Kargil infiltration by Pakistani forces in 1999 can be well avoided, and greater surveillance of the Indian Ocean will be possible. In addition the Armed Forces are able to purchase electro optical data available from satellites like the French SPOT, ENVISAT, LANDSAT, IKONOS and Japanese ALOS and radar data from RADARSAT, GEOEYE and German TERRASAR.  INDIA’S MISSILE POWER AND THE INDIAN NAVY LOOKS AHEAD  India’s home designed nuclear capable surface to surface ballistic missiles (SSMs) that are in operational service range from the 250 to 350 km liquid fuelled Prithvi and the ship launched Dhanush, to the 700 to 1500 km solid/liquid fuelled Agni I and 2 and the Shauraya. These missiles are all beneficiaries and off shoots of ISRO programmes, and were incubated when Dr Abdul Kalam shifted from ISRO in the 1980s to build missiles and later to head India’s defence research department (DRDO). The underwater launched nuclear capable, 700km Sagarika K-15 missile is awaiting a submarine platform, and the longer range ICBM Agni-3 missile is under trial. The joint Indo Russian supersonic 299km Brahmos cruise missile is in service with the Army and the Navy, and a lighter air launched version will be tested soon on a SU-30MKI. India’s civil led programmes in space and nuclear, are now contributing to India’s military preparedness.  But, it is the Indian Navy which is the biggest beneficiary of the advances. The IN is getting a ‘makeover’ to catch up with the advanced navies of the west. Today Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance and the acronym C4ISR is part of all militaries jargon. Advanced militaries are severely dependent on down loaded optical, infrared and radar satellite data, interlaced with intelligence and real time digital communications. Planning of military and naval operations with ‘maritime domain awareness’ is a complex process, and is shaped by the capability of the commander and his staff, and advanced systems which provide a variety of inputs to him.  The naval decision making process is being made simpler, by developing knowledge based (KB) space support systems. The Indian Navy was given access to US Navy’s internet based Combined Enterprise Regional Information Exchange System-Maritime (CENTRIXS-M) and Integrated Shipboard Network System (ISNS) during Malabar exercises which was full of rich experience for the Navy’s technical officers and men. The Indian Navy’s Weapons Engineering Electronics Establishment (WEESE) laboratory and civilian companies like Bharat Electronics Ltd and Tatas and a modem manufacturer worked together on a stop gap Naval Enterprise Network, using an HF/VHF based internet protocol called Link-S/11 based on ARINC 249, and also employed VSAT Ku band reception and transmission via a GSAT satellite under Project Rukmani, but the bit rate and foot prints were limited. The Indian Navy also employs INMARSAT terminals for digital communications but sparingly, as the communications are not secure and inordinately expensive, but have been useful in anti piracy operations off the Horn of Africa, where secure web sites are used for the multinational operations.  The good news released by the Indian Navy is, it will soon have access to a Navy dedicated Geo Stationary ISRO built multi-band satellite, carrying payloads in UHF, S/C and Ku-band nodes. The satellite in the GSAT series is planned to be launched during 2011 on board a Geo Stationary Launch Vehicle (GSLV) and positioned at 74Âș East. The recent GSLV launch with an Indian manufactured cryogenic engine had failed earlier this year, but ISRO has pin pointed the error and may even use a Russian supplied cryogenic engine to ensure success. The satellite weighs 2330 kg with a payload power of 2000W and mission life of 9 years. By 2011 all naval ships will have Israeli supplied dual off set Gregorian terminals in 45 inch radomes for transmission and reception via ISRO’s launched satellite, entering the NCW domain.  Orbit Technology Group of Israel claimed they are the preferred suppliers for the ship terminals, having supplied the UAV control systems on INS Vindhyagiri and Taragiri to control shore launched Searcher UAVs to extended ranges. Orbit claim they have world wide acceptance in USA, UK and Singapore. The internet terminals linked to the ships CIC computers, compass and other sensors will be able to cater for 30 degree roll, 15 degree pitch, and 8 degree yaw and a turning rate of 12 degree/sec. The up link will be in the frequencies including 13 to 15Ghz and down links in 10 to 13Ghz. India’s march towards modern and safe and secure global positioning, and GIS data transmission in the Indian Ocean has begun, led by the Indian Navy.  INDIAN NAVY’S AMBITIOUS EXPANSION PLANS  The Navy’s C4ISR plans are dedicated to support the Navy’s ambitious warship building programme which aims to induct 40 new large surface platforms, 15 conventional and nuclear submarines and 300 planes, helicopters and UAVs by 2022, concurrent with India’s 12th five year plan. As of writing 38 warships, including two aircraft carriers and 7 submarines are under construction/order and the refitted nuclear Akula submarine Nerpa, will join later this year from Russia. India’s own nuclear submarine ATV INS Arihant is making steady progress at the ship building center at Vishakapatnam. India’s second term Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh speaking at the 2006 Commander’s Conference in New Delhi, had stated that funds for the Navy’s expansion will not be a constraint. He has kept his word, despite escalations of over $ 1.3 bill over the negotiated $ 974 mill, for the 45,000 ton aircraft carrier INS Vikrmaditya (Admiral Gorshkov) from Russia, and the increase of $ 468 mill reported by Forecast International for the ongoing six conventional French Scorpene submarines building at Mazagon Docks Ltd at Mumbai contracted in 2006 for $ 3.9 bill. The Scorpene delivery schedule has slipped by nearly three years and the first boat will be commissioned in 2013.  In June this year India’s MOD placed an order for 6 Naval 3,000 OPVs on Pipavav Shipyard Ltd a private yard on the west coast for $ 700 mill in the new ‘Buy Foreign Design and Build in India’ scheme. Another green light has recently been given under the same scheme by the Defence Acquisition Council(DAC) and approved by the apex Cabinet Committee for Security(CCS), to progress and issue request for proposals (RFPs/tenders) for 6 additional Brahmos firing submarines for $ 10 bill and 7 latest western designed frigates to be built in India for around $ 7 bill. Analysts estimate that the Navy will be spending over $ 50 bill in the next 12 years, just for its planned expansion.  REGIONAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE GPS SYSTEM (IRNSS)  The civil and military need for a national GPS for GIS and other applications is also taking shape. The 24 satellites of the American GPS, and 18 of Russia’s Glonass satellites where India is a small partner, can well be turned off or errors could be entered. India’s missiles are GPS reliant for accurate targeting. The Chinese have completed the Biedou system regionally; with ambitions of a larger world wide Compass system and the EU have gone in for the Galileo. Technological fantasies and programming possibilities abound in what GIS and GPS can contribute to the military, like the internet protocols have done, which itself was a military innovation. Advances of technology in warfare are also referred to as the Revolution in Military Affairs(RMA).  India’s ISRO has planned a seven satellite Indian Regional Navigational Satellite GPS System (IRNSS) along with Gagan an acronym for GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation system meaning ‘Sky’ in Sanskrit for air navigation GPS accuracy. Gagan has been processed by Raytheon and ISRO jointly, and will provide military advantages. The proposed IRNSS system consists of a constellation of seven satellites and a support ground segment to be operational by 2013. Three of the satellites in the constellation will be placed in geostationary orbit over the Indian Ocean located at an apogee of 24,000 km with atomic clocks and electronic equipment to generate the navigation signals. The IRNSS signals will consist of a special positioning precision service being carried on L5 (1176.45 MHz) and S band (2492.08 MHz) and broadcast through a phased array antenna to maintain continuous coverage and signal strength. The satellites would weigh approximately 1,330 kg each and their solar panels will be capable of generating 1,400 watts, with 20 meters accuracy throughout India and extending further to 2000km. The civil applications are many and the military applications are obvious for missile targeting.  CONCLUSION  The Indian Naval ships when 24×7 internet capable with each other, and connected to Indian Navy’s shore headquarters ‘s through ISRO launched communication satellite and stabilized terminals, will have better maritime domain awareness (MDA) and the leadership in Delhi will have better ‘situational awareness’. The soft ware systems options of open architecture, Java, Silverlight, and Flex and banking soft wares like SABRE and such civilian advancements is allowing the Navy to build common operating platforms. This allows the Navy interoperability with western navies and will contribute towards Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief(HADR). The challenge will only be to get rich and valid data and intelligence at sea, and the IN culture is well prepared and funded for it. The Indian Navy is the navy to watch, and in post script the AFNET is described.

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