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Sunday, 9 February 2014

From Today's Papers - 09 Feb 2014

US military funds 'Mission: Impossible' vanishing devices
Washington:  The US military is spending millions to build "vanishing" technology that self-destructs on the battlefield, like the tape recorder that goes up in smoke in the "Mission: Impossible" television show.

The Pentagon's hi-tech research arm has awarded contracts worth more than $17 million in the past two months to prevent micro-electronic sensors and other devices from falling into enemy hands.

The companies have been tasked to develop "transient" electronics that could be destroyed remotely or crumble into tiny pieces.

In the 1960s series Mission: Impossible, the lead spy always receives top-secret instructions on a reel-to-reel tape recorder, before being told: "This tape will self-destruct in five seconds."

Now the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is funding a 21st century version of the recorder, backing experimental projects under the Vanishing Programmable Resources Program.

The use of small, sophisticated electronics in everything from radios to weapons has increased dramatically for American forces, but it is "nearly impossible to track and recover every device," according to a DARPA contract document last month.

"Electronics are often found scattered across the battlefield and might be captured by the enemy and repurposed or studied," it said, warning America is in danger of losing its technological edge.

The new program aims to solve the problem by creating systems "capable of physically disappearing in a controlled, triggerable manner," rendering the devices useless to the enemy.

DARPA is known for its ambitious research, some of which has resulted in breakthroughs useful for both military and civilian use, including the creation of the Internet and GPS navigation system.

For its latest project, the agency is reinterpreting the idea of a "kill switch," which dates back to the Cold War, when "permissive action link" devices were introduced to prevent a rogue nuclear launch.

Unlike ordinary off-the-shelf electronics that can last indefinitely, the agency "is looking for a way to make electronics that last precisely as long as they are needed," said program manager Alicia Jackson.

The device could be destroyed either by a signal sent by commanders or prompted by "possible environmental conditions" such as a certain temperature, she said.

The nascent technology is potentially revolutionary, with possible applications for medicine as well as combat, officials said.

In 2012, DARPA used similar technology to create a micro device - made of ultra-thin sheets of silicon and magnesium covered in silk - to be implanted harmlessly into the body to prevent infection from surgery.

Efforts to build degradable electronics have tended to rely on polymeric or biological materials, and that has resulted in poor electronic performance and "weak mechanical properties," according to the agency.

The project is still a long away from being deployed in a real battle, and will require years of research by private industry.

In the latest contract for the program, announced on January 31, DARPA provided $3.5 million to IBM for a proposal to use a radio frequency to shatter a glass coating on a silicon chip, reducing it to dust.

The Palo Alto Research Center in California received $2.1 million to build devices with dummy circuits that would be triggered to "crumble into small, sand-like particles in a fraction of a second."

Defense giant BAE Systems was awarded $4.5 million on January 22 and Honeywell Corporation won a $2.5 million contract on December 3 for more "vanishing" technology research.

And DARPA announced in December a $4.7 million contract for SRI International to develop "SPECTRE" batteries designed to self-destruct.
China’s Increased Defence Budget And Its Implications For India – Analysis
By Dr Subhash Kapila

In marked contrast to India’s regrettable declining defence budget expenditures in face of rising threats from China and Pakistan, one is witnessing a surging increase in China’s defence budget notably when China faces no credible military threats from any quarter.

China ‘s defence budget is assessed to touch US $ 148 billion in 2014, second only to the United States defence budget and outstripping the combined defence budgets of Germany, France and the United Kingdom.

China’s defence budget also far outstrips the combined defence spending of its peer Asian  rivals, namely, Japan and India. Japan’s spending on defence in 2013 amounted to $56.842 billion and that of India was $46.183 billion. In case of India, every year as the Annual Budget nears presentation, thousands of crores are hived from the Defence Budget to balance the books by the Finance Ministry.

Strategic analysts all over the world are questioning as to why China requires such outsized budgets when it faces no credible threats from major powers like the United States and Russia?

The answers forthcoming on analysis are that China is engaged in reducing the differentials in its military power relative to the United States with multiple aims of emerging as the predominant Asian military power, attempting to emerge as the “strategic co-equal” of the United States in Asia and all of these combined to ultimately prompt a US military exit of its forward military deployments in the Western Pacific.

Towards such multiple strategic aims, China’s increase in its defence budgets are focused on expansion of  the Chinese Navy and the combat power of the Chinese Air Force along with China’s force projection capabilities. Also in focus is China’s emphasis on the expansion and modernisation of its nuclear arsenal. The display of Chinese maritime and air power in China’s conflict escalation in the South China Sea against Vietnam and the Philippines and in the East China Sea against Japan are clearly visible.

Further increases in China’s defence budgets can be expected to be earmarked for significant increases in China’s maritime power in terms of upgradation of it submarine fleet, surface combatants and additional aircraft carriers. China’s missiles arsenal can also be expected to be increased and so also its nuclear arsenal.

China’s ground forces may not see increases in manpower but what can be expected certainly  will be in terms of increased firepower systems, helicopter and airborne forces capabilities and special forces operations. With the emphasis on integrated warfare marked increases in China’s C4I capabilities will receive focus.

China’s cyber-warfare capabilities need to be a special concern to all nations in China’s military crosshairs and this is equally applicable both in peacetime and in conflictual situations.

China’s increasing military profile does not lend itself to China’s self-proclaimed ‘China’s peaceful rise’.  China’s switch from use of ‘soft-power strategies’ to use of ‘hard power strategies’ since 2009, more noticeably against Vietnam, Philippines, Japan and even against India on the Himalayan borders with Tibet stand well-documented.

China’s emerging military profile is also a concern to the leading military powers like the United States and Russia and both in their own ways are engaged in coping with the implications of a militarily rising China with no benign aims or stake in global and regional stability.

What are the military implications for India of China’s sustained increases in military expenditures visible with the increasing defence budget increases?

China’s defence spending increases may not be India-specific as some would like to argue and that they are geared to its strategic aims outlined above, however, what cannot be wished away is the strategic reality that China’s increasing military profile has in terms of spill-over effects creates serious strategic and military implications for India’s security.

In strategic terms, China’s significant military rise without any corresponding, if not matching, increases in India’s military profile against the backdrop of the reality that China is “India’s Military Threat Number One”, strategically diminishes India’s Asian and global image of being a serious contender for emerging as an ‘Asian Power’ of some reckoning. Even Japan as an aspiring ‘Asian Power’ has responded to its ‘China Threat’ with significant fast-track military increases.

Strategically therefore, India rather than attempting to reduce the differentials in its military power relative to China is down-sliding and permitting the China-India military power differential to widen and this should be a matter of concern to all Indians.

Reverting to the military implications of China’s increasing military spending on Indian security, we have serious challenges to face in all three domains of land warfare, air warfare and sea power.

India’s Himalayan land borders with Tibet are a matter of special military concern. Both on the borders and in the Tibetan hinterland, China has amassed overwhelming military power, air power and strategic nuclear missiles. China has developed extensive defence infrastructure  by way of roads, railways and airfields to support this massed Chinese military power threatening India.

China’s focus in terms of military spending in Tibet is therefore now likely to focus on air-mobility and helicopter-borne military operations for swifter operations against Indian Army limited by under-developed defence infra-structure and limited mobility in any counter-offensive operations.

China is also likely to increase the integral firepower of its forces deployed in Tibet. India’s lack of matching firepower with the Indian Artillery being deprived of modernised inductions for the last thirty years due to political leadership and its inefficient Ministry of Defence civilian bureaucracy will seriously handicap Indian Army military operations on the Tibetan borders.

Indian Air Force combat operations in the Tibet Theatre are seriously blunted with the deficiency of more than 126 Fighter Aircraft in its inventory hanging fire for the last ten years or more again due to political indecision and processing paralysis by the Ministry of Defence bureaucracy. This glaring void would seriously impair India’s air defence on its Tibetan borders and deprive the Indian Army of critically needed air support and more so when the Indian Artillery is burdened with outdated weapon systems.

In terms of China’s significant focus on expansion of its maritime sea power, India should awaken to the implications that would ensue as China’s maritime power receives sustained inputs for its expansion with budgetary increases. The Indian Ocean is in danger of no longer continuing as the Indian Ocean. The Chinese Navy has already established an Indian Ocean presence as far as the Gulf of Aden on the pretext of joining the international effort to combat piracy.

India’s business as usual in terms of coping with China’s growing intrusive strategies in the Indian Ocean is also likely to effect India’s Look East Policy implementation. India’s Look East Policy effective implementation would require a strong naval posture besides a strong political will.

One wonders also whether substantial financial resources have been allocated by the Government for the effective land, sea and air defences of its garrison deployments on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Concluding, one would like to make the following assertions in relation to China’s sustained increases in its defence spending and its implications for India:

    China continues and will continue as India’s “Military Threat Number One”.
    China’s sustained increases in its defence spending reinforce India’s “Military Threat Number One”.
    Indian political leadership’s lack of political will to measure upto China’s threatening military profile is contributing to the widening of China-India military power differentials.
    Measuring up to facing The China Threat squarely dictates imperatives for India for complete re-structuring of India’s national security apparatus, its Ministry of Defence and a re-casting of India’s civil-military relations template.
European companies come well armed for tie-ups at Defexpo
 For many European companies, Defexpo 2014 being held here is an opportunity for announcing their intent to work closely with Indian companies under the revised defence procurement process, which focusses on “make or buy Indian.” A good number of them have been executing air, surface or naval projects with Indian defence agencies or waiting for finalisation of deals, some of which have reached the final negotiation stage.

Rainer Farid of Eurocopter told The Hindu that the biennial exhibition provided major defence players a platform to display their expertise. “We are looking at replacements for Chetak and Cheetah [helicopters] for the Army through our Fennec choppers. We have already proved our compliance through field trials twice in both the high altitude of the Himalayas and the plains. But since 2010, we have been waiting for the move on,” he said.

Similarly, he said, the company had pitched its AS 565 Panther multi-role helicopter for the 56 naval utility copters for search-and-rescue missions which the Navy and the Coast Guard require. It is also eyeing India’s naval multi-role helicopter contract for 125 gunships. This project is at the request-for-inquiry stage and consultations with vendors are on. Airbus is looking at the attack and heavy helicopter space. Boeing has been selected for supply of 22 Apache attack helicopters and 15 Chinook heavy helicopters, but the deal is not yet signed.

Christian Scherer of Airbus Defence and Space is in India for Defexpo as his company has been “strongly focussed on the Indian market.” It has been selected to provide the Indian Air Force’s new tanker aircraft — the A330 multi-role tanker transport. Even here the deal is not yet closed. “Well, naturally we would like matters to be concluded as soon as possible; it has been an exceptionally long campaign,” he said.

Simultaneously, Airbus is eyeing replacement of the old Avro transport aircraft that the Indian Air Force operates for general passenger and cargo purposes. The force is looking at procuring 56 aircraft. “They have asked for responses to the request for proposals next month and we will be offering our C295 aircraft. It is the market leader in its class and it is famous for being able to handle tough, hot and dusty operating conditions,” Mr. Scherer said.

Airbus is interested in the Coast Guard’s need for a new maritime surveillance aircraft and an indigenous airborne warning and control system (AWACS) aircraft.

With the Navy in the middle of a major modernisation drive, a number of submarine and torpedo manufacturers working with it are participating in the exhibition.

One of them is the French major DCNS, which is executing the Scorpene submarine project in the Mazagaon Dock in Mumbai. While the company is known for its Barracuda-class nuclear submarines, the six Scorpenes being manufactured are conventional but can be modified into nuclear vessels as barring the power source, the remaining vessel is similar to a nuclear vessel.

A company official, Marie-Laure Belle, said the first of the six submarines was scheduled to be commissioned in September 2016 and thereafter one would be rolled out every year.
Corruption, decision logjams slow India's arms modernisation

Global arms makers gathered in New Delhi for India's biggest defence show face further frustrating delays as they await a new government which they hope can speed up procurement.

Big French, British, Russian, US and other arms groups at Defexpo, which runs until Sunday, are competing to offer their wares to India, the largest global importer of conventional weapons.

The country, with regional rival Pakistan to the west and growing China to the north, is in the midst of a stuttering $100-billion defence modernisation programme to replace Soviet-era planes and tanks.

But hopes New Delhi might sign any big deals at the show were dashed Thursday by Defence Minister A K Antony, who said on the sidelines of India's Defexpo that "there is no money left" in the defence budget for this year.

"Almost all the budget has been spent. Many other projects are also in the pipeline," he said.

Speaking on the sidelines of the four-day event at which over 600 companies are exhibiting, he added that firms would have to wait until a new government takes office after elections due by May.

His left-leaning Congress party, in power since 2004, is headed for a resounding defeat according to polls, with a new coalition led by the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party forecast to take its place.

But the next government will also face spending constraints, with economic growth faltering and the country running a large fiscal deficit at a time when investors are pressuring emerging market currencies.

A long backlog

Among the major contracts on hold is a $12-billion deal for 126 Rafale fighter jets which has been under exclusive negotiation by France's Dassault Aviation since January 2012.

Successive deadlines to complete one of the world's biggest defence contracts -- including one for the end of this financial year in March -- have slipped by.

Under the proposed deal, New Delhi would buy outright 18 fighters manufactured in France and then make the rest under licence in India.

European missile maker MBDA is another waiting to complete the sale of up to 2,000 short-range surface-to-air missiles.

The contract was announced during a visit by French President Francois Hollande to India in February 2013 but the deal still needs final approval by the Indian government.

Head of the group in India, Loc Piedevache, told AFP he was still hopeful of signing the contract "in the coming months".

The missiles are due to be produced by the Indian industrial group Bharat Dynamics Ltd (BDL) but the European firm would still get a substantive share of the contract.

Another deal on the anvil is for 197 reconnaissance helicopters for which Eurocopter, now known as Airbus Helicopters, and the Russian group Kamov have been competing since 2009.

"The need is there," said Olivier Lambert, senior vice president in charge of global Airbus Helicopters sales.

The helicopters are intended to replace the Indian army's decades-old Cheetah and Chetak choppers, while new artillery procurement has long been another priority for the generals.

Bureaucratic hold-ups and corruption

Experts and military planners agree that acquiring new equipment is a priority for India.

The army "has not been able to induct artillery since the last was purchased in 1980s", says Laxman Kumar Behera, analyst at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA).

The land army has "deficiency in basic requirements such as bullet proof jackets, night vision devices, assault rifles", Behera told AFP.

India's defence ministry has long been demanding that the armed forces wean themselves off their dependence on foreign equipment, but the local industry remains weak.

India still imports 70 percent of its military equipment despite the country's insistence that foreign manufacturers tie up with local partners and transfer technology.

"India's ambitions to be a self-reliant defence producer remains, but much soul searching needs to be done in order to make this ambition a reality," said Deba R. Mohanty, head of research firm Indicia.

Corruption cases, logjams in the decision-making chain and a lack of local research and development have also slowed the modernisation of the armed forces.

India cancelled last month a 556-million-euro ($753-million) contract with Anglo-Italian firm AgustaWestland to buy luxury helicopters for VIPs amid bribery allegations.

Industry insiders say that fear of being accused of corruption -- which has scuppered numerous contracts in the past -- has led many civil servants to sit on files and delay making decisions.

"Indian defence procurement process is such a complex administrative web that the process gets stuck in its own complexities," Mohanty told AFP.
 N-powered Arihant to test-fire missile soon
Tribune News Service

New Delhi, February 7
India’s system to stall an incoming ‘enemy-fired’ nuclear missile in mid-air and destroying it will be put to test in a month from now. The Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) system will tackle in mid-air any incoming nuclear missile. DRDO chief Avinash Chander said: “We are going through consolidation phase flight. A test flight is planned about a month from now”. We will finalise the configuration, this will conduct repeated tests for interceptions.

Separately, nuclear-powered submarine Arihant will test-fire the missile so far named ‘B-05’ as part of its forthcoming sea trials.

The DRDO chief told a press conference at the Defexpo here that the missiles to be fired from Arihant are ready and the submarine was going through power raising cycles. There are safety procedures to be followed and will be completed in a month or two. Once full power generation is achieved, it will go for sea trials. The DRDO chief while answering questions said “the B-05 missile will be tested this year and they are part of the sea trials of Arihant”.

Chander said the development trials of the B-05 missile were completed in January 2013 and it is ready for being fully integrated with the indigenous nuclear submarine. Sources said it can travel to 700 km while the bigger variant, so far known as ‘K-4’, can hit targets 3,500 km away and will finally be installed on the Arihant and also the next two follow-on submarines of the same class.

The DRDO chief said it was developing UAVs for use by the CRPF to track down Left-wing extremists in thick forest areas of Naxal-hit states, including Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. "We are planning to do a demonstration of Nishant UAV from Jagdalpur sometime in March and April around that region. They have roughly indicated the requirement of 16 birds to start with”.

Giving an update on the Arjun Mark II user trials, the DRDO chief said: "The user trials have been completed. There are small issues with the missile system being fired, which will be rectified”.

Chander warned that India faces a major cyber security challenge from imported defence products which can come laden with snooping virus or malwares and should thus get involved with the production of weapon systems from their inception stage. “For real security, the answer lies being involved with it from the design stage," he said, adding that similar control cannot be possessed over a system that is procured from outside.

Responding to a question on India’s ability to check for malware or snooping devices in advanced systems like the C-17 and C-130J Super Hercules aircraft procured from the United States, Chander said: “When an equipment is bought from outside, you have no control.”

Fire power

    Nuclear-powered submarine Arihant will test-fire the missile so far named 'B-05' as part of its forthcoming sea trials
    The development trials of the B-05 missile were completed in January 2013 and it is ready for being fully integrated with the indigenous nuclear submarine
    The DRDO will also test Ballistic Missile Defence system to tackle any incoming nuclear missile mid-air
 Finmeccanica ‘hosted’ IAF former chief Fali Major

New Delhi, February 7
In a fresh development in the scam-tainted VVIP chopper deal, lawyers of AgustaWestland have reportedly told an Italian court that its parent company Finmeccanica had hosted the then IAF chief FH Major in 2007, a period when the bidders were being shortlisted.

Lawyers of the Anglo-Italian firm also told the court in Busto Arsizio that there was no meeting between Italian officials and the other former IAF chief SP Tyagi, who is named in a CBI FIR, said reports in the Italian media.

A former AgustaWestland official James Saporito had claimed during the last hearing on February 4 that he had hosted Tyagi during one of his visits to that country.

Lawyers said Saporito seemed to be confused over the identity of the person with whom he had had dinner while he was working with the company. Agusta lawyers also shared pictures of Major along with the company officials at a dinner hosted by the firm, said reports. Reacting to the report, Major said he had visited Finmeccanica in 2007 during an official trip to Italy and the company had hosted him, along with his delegation members, for a dinner.

He said his visit had been approved by the government and programme chalked out by officials concerned as well as the Indian Embassy in Italy. "It was not for my personal requirement but for the delegation which was visiting the country," he told a TV channel. The trials of the choppers were held after Major took over from Tyagi on April one, 2007.

The CAG, while auditing the deal, had observed that the trials of the Agusta copters were conducted abroad and not in India and had questioned Major's justification in this regard. The trials for the AgustaWestland model were conducted on representative Merlin helicopters and not on the actual craft whereas the other contender, Sikorsky, had offered its S-92 for try-outs, the CAG had said. — PTI
 Rafale’s rival Eurofighter throws hat in the ring
Ajay Banerjee
Tribune News Service

New Delhi, February 7
A day after Defence Minister AK Antony said the ministry was probing complaints on procedures of calculating the life cycle costs of procuring the 126 Rafale fighter jets from France, Euofighter, the nearest rival of the French plane maker, has shown interest saying it was on standby and ready to re-engage with India.

Competitors of the French makers have suddenly shown interest as Antony’s statements yesterday are being read with interest.

Theodor Benien, vice president (communications), Eurofighter, said: “We are monitoring the latest developments in India with great interest. The Eurofighter is here at Defexpo to demonstrate that we are on standby and that we are ready to re-engage any time the Indians. We have listened to the statements of the Defence Minister.”

The Eurofighter Typhoon and the Rafale were the two planes shortlisted out of six in the first round. Eurofighter, which is part of the Airbus (a consortium of European countries), failed to make the cut in the final selection in January 2012. The deal is to buy 126 planes at a cost of some $11 billion.
Indian army remembers heroes of Naoshera victory in 1948 war
Jammu, Feb 7 (IANS) The Indian army Friday celebrated 'Naoshera Day' to remember its heroes who made laid down their lives to save the town in Rajouri district of Jammu region during the India-Pakistan war of 1947-48.

"Naoshera Day was celebrated today with all its glitter and military precision to remember the gallant heroes of Indian army, who made the supreme sacrifices to save Naoshera," said a defence statement issued here.

Wreaths was laid at Jadunath War Memorial by the northern army command chief, the White Knight corps commander, the Ace of Spades Division commander and relatives of Param Vir Chakra Naik recipient Jadunath Singh, it said.

A felicitation ceremony for war widows, veterans and disabled soldiers was also conducted on the occasion.

The function was attended by defence and police personnel, official of the civil administration, school children and locals of Naoshera, it added.
Defexpo 2014: Saab, Ashok Leyland team up for Indian SRSAM tender
Sweden's Saab announced on 5 February it is to collaborate with India's Ashok Leyland to compete for the Indian Army's 2012 short-range-surface-to-air-missile (SRSAM) air defence tender, estimated at more than USD2 billion.

The tie-up combines Saab's medium-range RBS 23 BAMSE missile systems with Ashok Leyland's high-mobility 'Super Stallion' 8x8 vehicles, designed to operate in varied terrain under all weather conditions.

"The BAMSE is a proven air defence missile system and the Ashok Leyland platform is a suitable all-terrain vehicle," said Saab India head Lars-Olof Lindgren in an official statement.

Mobility is essential to the flexible and optimal deployment of air defence units, he added.
DRDO develops corner-shot rifle for counter-insurgency
New Delhi: India's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed a corner-shot rifle for the special forces that provides greater safety during counter-insurgency operations as its user is not in the direct line of fire, a top official has said.

DRDO chief Avinash Chander told India Strategic defence magazine that the lightweight rifle is made of composite materials and is multi-calibre, capable of firing both 5.56 and 7.62 rounds. It is at present undergoing final tests at its small arms unit in Pune.

Once the evaluation trials are over, the rifle design would be offered to a public or private sector industry for manufacture as per the government's decision, and then made available to special forces like the National Security Guard (NSG), Indian Army and police units.

The corner shot rifle, which enables a soldier to fire at 90 degrees or at an angle from behind a wall without facing a terrorist or a target, was first developed in Israel. India is reported to have bought some rifles for anti-terror operations.

Chander said that the rifle is of simple design and would be easy to manufacture.

'Cyber security biggest challenge'

Terming cyber security a "biggest security challenge", DRDO chief Avinash Chander Friday said there was need of a new purchase process to get the country system that could not be "subverted".

Talking to reporters at Defexpo 2014 here, Chander said that leakage of information could take place in a subverted system, adding that there was need to get exposure to the internal processes when acquiring a new system.

"Today cyber security is our biggest security challenge.... This requires new paradigm in purchase processes. When we buy, we must buy with security in mind," Chander said.

Earlier, Chander said at a press conference that the Defence Research and Development Organisation has launched a major programme for developing cyber technology tools and a lot of work was being done in that direction.

He said real cyber security could be ensured by taking adequate safety measures from the time software is developed.

"If real security (is to be ensured), answer lies (in getting involved) from the design stage," he said, and added that it was difficult to do so in systems that were procured from outside the country.

"Wherever equipment is being bought (from outside the country), you have no control," he said.

Chander, who is also scientific advisor to Defence Minister A. K. Antony, said getting in the process of development of a system at early stage will help build cocoons around it for protection.

He indicated that many agencies working outside the defence sector take their own decisions concerning foreign purchases of equipment and there was need for guidelines.

Answering a query on the possibility of hacking of defence systems acquired from abroad, Chander said: "We have to see what can be done. We have to ensure that core (system) is protected."
Saab takes Indian partner for air defense contract bid

LINKOPING, Sweden, Feb. 6 (UPI) -- Saab of Sweden has teamed with India's Ashok Leyland in a competition for an Indian Army air defense program.

Saab, in announcing its partnership for the short-range surface-to-air-missile, or SRSAM, project will provide its BAMSE missile system while Ashok Leyland will provide high-mobility vehicles.

"The tie-up brings together two great engineering companies with front-end technologies that together could serve the Indian Army well," said Lars-Olof Lindgren, head of Saab's India market area. "The BAMSE is a proven air defense missile system and the Ashok Leyland platform is a very suitable all-terrain vehicle.

"The need for mobility for air defense units is essential for flexible and optimal deployment. We are very happy to find a robust vehicle in Ashok Leyland's product range that meets the requirements."

The Saab BAMSE SRSAM is an all-weather, all-target, ground-based air defense missile system. The complete SRSAM system includes the GIRAFFE AMB, a 3-D surveillance radar and command-and-control system intended for short and medium-range ground-based air defense and the BAMSE MCC missile launcher with six ready-to-fire missiles.

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